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Abdominal T.B:  
Abdominal T.B: In this page, we are going to discuss about Abdominal T.B and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Abortion:  
Abortion: Termination of pregnancy before 24 weeks of gestation either intentionally or spontaneously is called abortion, it is also defined a expulsion of products of conception or expulsion of fetus before 24 weeks. (Developing baby in uterus is called fetus).  Abortion can be classified into many types, legal or illegal, spontaneous or induced. Medically is it divided into complete, incomplete, threatened, and septic abortion?

Causes of abortion are many, these include genetic abnormalities of fetus,  poor maternal health, infections, trauma or injury to abdomen, hormonal disturbances, cervical incompetence, autoimmune disorders, blood disorders, blood group incompatibilities, severe developmental anomaly of baby on ultrasounds, stress and severe depression, use of irrigative substances which stimulate contraction of uterus, congenital anomalies and fibroids or tumors of uterus.

Hormonal oils and drugs carry out induced abortions, which start severe contractions of uterus, by herbal remedies like drinking castor oil, and by vigorous exercise. Symptoms are pain in lower abdomen progressing to regular contractions, bleeding or leaking from vagina in case of septic abortion fever, rapid pulse rate, decreased blood pressure and foul smelling vaginal discharge is present.

Bleeding may be in form of spotting or it could be severe, on examination cervix is opened, ultrasound detects the most forms of abortion. In case of threatened or impending abortion, preventive measures are done to stop it like be rest, drugs to stop uterine contraction, fluid therapy and nutritional support. In case of complete abortion, products of conception have to be removed by vacuum aspiration or dilatation and curettage or D&C.

Complete abortion usually result in expulsion of whole fetus and placenta, ultrasound is repeated to see any retained products if these products are intact then dilatation and evacuation D&E is performed under anesthesia. Antibiotic cover should be given in all types of abortions.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Abortion and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Achalasia:  
Achalasia: It is a disorder in which there is defect in motility of esophagus and spasm of esophageal muscles results in inability of patient to swallow food.

Esophagus is a muscular tube, which propels food towards stomach, it has a sphincter or valve at its lower end, which opens during act of swallowing and controls food entry into stomach, but in achalasia this sphincter can not function properly and does not relax during swallowing.

Achalasia may be primary or secondary, primary achalasia is without any cause, it occurs in absence of any physical deformity in esophageal structure, secondary achalsia is due to diseases like esophageal cancer.

Whatever the cause but there is lack of nerve supply and imbalance in neurotransmitters which regulate peristaltic action of esophagus (peristalsis is rhythmic contraction of muscles in esophagus and other parts of intestine which propels food particles towards anus).

Symptoms of achalasia
are very distressing for patients, initially there is difficulty in swallowing of solids later it progresses for even liquids, food is swallowed with difficulty and pain, patient feels chest pain due to regurgitation of food and acid reflux from stomach due to loss of tone of esophageal sphincter.

As disease progresses there is weight loss and nutrient deficiency, often it is misdiagnosed as esophageal cancer because of similar signs and symptoms.

Diagnosis is made by x-rays with contrast medium like barium swallow, endoscopy, biopsy can be taken during endoscopy. Definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy, which differentiates it from esophageal cancer.

Achalasia treatment can be done by both drugs and by surgery. Medicines, which are used, relieve muscular spasm and decrease lower esophageal sphincter tone. One method is dilation of esophageal tube by applying pressure through balloon. Surgery is attempted in case of severe spasm leading to life threatening symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Achalasia  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acid Carbolic:  
Acid Carbolic: Carbolic acid is a chemical with sweet odor and found in many products like perfumes, antiseptics, lubricants, disinfectants, detergents, nylon and plastics. It is also called phenol. It s poisoning can occur after accidental ingestion or local contact.

Symptoms: In case of ingestion or swallowing there are extensive burns on mouth and throat, nausea, bloody vomiting and stool, abdominal pain, there is passage of characteristic blue or greenish yellow colored urine, yellow skin and eyes, if not treated it may progress to low blood pressure, convulsions or seizures, rapid breathing and heart rate, with increasing shortness of breath.

Ultimately patient collapse and develop signs of shock like cold clammy skin, excessive thirst, dehydration, coma. Lung edema is major cause of death. Chronic exposure can result in brain, kidney and liver damage. Long term dermal contact causes dermatitis.

Diagnosis: As with other acid poisoning, physical signs of acid like smell, and burns help to make diagnosis. There is no specific test for diagnosis.

Treatment: Wash skin and area exposed to acid with large amounts of cool water. Decontamination with the help of stomach wash should be done in hospital setting. Breathing support with fluid and electrolyte balance should immediately be started without delay. Skin and throat burns require special care and it greatly affects the outcome.

In this page, we are going to discuss about acid carbolic and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acne Vulgaris:  
Acne Vulgaris: Acne is very common problem and everyone experiences it in teenage life except the rare cases. Acne is appearance of pimples, pustules, white and black heads on skin of face, it is due to the blockage of skin pores by excessive oil, cosmetic or creams, in each skin pore there is single hair which has hair root or follicle in the end and there is one gland attached to this follicle called sebaceous gland which secretes oil for lubrication of skin.

When these pores are blocked by excessive secretion of oil or due to other reasons; acne appears on face. Acne can also occur in skin of back and buttocks.

Causes: Hormonal changes, stress, infrequent washing of face, pollution, dust, clogging of pores by cosmetics and creams, all can causes acne. Certain drugs can also cause it like oral contraceptive pills. Some people associate intake of chocolate, sour sauces, fried and greasy foods with acne but this has no definitive proof.

Symptoms: Small red colored nodules appear on face sometimes very painful, surrounding skin is red, sometimes these are filled with pus with central small black colored point in center, if this is extensive and touched by hands, they resolve with scarring which can be permanent.

Treatment:
Acne is treated by oil control face washes, creams and gels, vitamin A application  is also very effective in treating acne, there are  many over the counter drugs for acne but it should be treated by proper dermatologist, in case of infected acne antibacterial local creams are applied, some time systemic therapy has to be given.

Self-measures to treat it are face washing by mild soaps, daily cleansing of face by cleanser, toning face skin by rose water, facials. Local application of Aloe Vera gel, mixture of lemon and glycerin, cucumber and tomato juice is also effective as herbal remedy for acne.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acne Vulgaris and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Aconite:  
Aconite: Aconite is highly toxic substance found in aconite plant which is grown in wild   areas like forests. Due to its immediate toxic effects, it was widely used as animal poison in hunting to kill wild animals like bears and tigers. Hunters and farmers used it as arrow poison.

However when decontaminated by processing it has many therapeutic advantages. It has been used in Chinese medicine to treat headaches, fever and even intestinal infections like appendicitis after processing of aconite plant to neutralize its toxic effects.

Its accidental poisoning is common after accidental ingestion of wild plant especially roots and tubers and if large doses of herbal medicine are taken. Toxin can also be absorbed readily by picking leaves or handling plant without gloves.

Symptoms: On ingestion, it causes tingling and numbness of affected area likes face, mucous membrane of mouth, nausea vomiting diarrhea and abdominal cramps. It is potent cardio toxin as well as neurotoxin; cardiovascular symptoms are low blood pressure and heart rate, chest pain, progressing to tachycardia, palpitation and cardiac arrhythmias. On local contact, it cause numbness and abnormal sensation in affected areas like hands, fingers and feet and muscle weakness.

Diagnosis:  It not confirmation that drug levels are diagnostic of toxicity, history of exposure and signs and symptoms are helpful for making diagnosis.

Treatment: Approach is towards  restoring heart functions by giving antidote which is available and should be given in hospital settings, activated charcoal cab be used to eliminate the poison in case of recent ingestion. Hemoperfusion is also successfully used to treat severe aconite toxicity.

In this page, we are going to discuss about aconite and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Actinomycosis:  
Actinomycosis: Actinomycosis is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium actinomyces israelii. It usually appears as red hot lump on face or neck with  a sinus tract discharging outside. Causative factors are poor oral hygiene, oral dental procedures like root canal, dental extractions. Sometimes it occurs in other areas of body like lungs, brain, abdomen and pelvis. It is very difficult to diagnose because symptoms resemble other diseases. Diagnosis is through biopsy and culture & sensitivity  tests of the sinus fluid. Treatment is antibiotic and sometimes lump is removed through surgical procedure. In this page, we are going to discuss about Actinomycosis and types of actinomycosis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Active And Passive Congestive Headache:  
Active And Passive Congestive Headache: Congestive headache is type of headache which occurs due to congestion of different tissues in head and neck region and that increases interracial pressure.

There is obstruction to venous outflow. Different conditions which cause congestive headache are sinusitis, cold flue, rhinitis, ear infections or some oro dental infections, sinusitis is inflammation of sinuses; sinuses are airspace within the facial bone sand filled with air the  keep bones  light in weight and if inflamed filled with fluid  and cells which causes congestion.

Rhinitis is inflammation of nasal cavity, it causes congestion in the same way as sinusitis does, in al these conditions similar symptom is congestive headache along with primary symptoms, and congestive headache is of throbbing dull type associated with heaviness.

Diagnosis of congestive headache is made by clinical history, examination of facial structures by different instruments to see for congestion like ear, nose examination, X ray of sinuses and skull bones is done to detect sinusitis, and causes for rhinitis, CT, and MRI scans are done to detect tumors.

Treatment is done by decongestants drugs, anti allergic and anti inflammatory drugs, pain killers are not as effective because pain is due to congestion, primary disease should be treated with antibiotics .steam inhalation is very good for relieving congestion.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Active And Passive Congestive Headache  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Brightís Disease:  
Acute Bright's Disease: In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Bright's Disease and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Bronchitis:  
Acute Bronchitis: It is acute inflammation of bronchi which are upper respiratory passages. It is usually viral but sometimes it is of bacterial origin. Patient starts chest pain, low grade fever, cough with sputum, and shortness of breath. Sputum may be yellow green in case of bacterial.  Main causes are smoking, lung and heart disease, allergies. It is  common in children and old population but can occur at any age. while treating give plenty of fluid and  avoid cold, rest, antibiotics in case of bacterial bronchitis. Steam inhalation is also effective. Smoking is a major factor so patient should be educated not to smoke.In this page, we are going to discuss about acute bronchitis and types of malaria, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Cholecystitis:  
Acute Cholecystitis: Acute cholecystitis is acute inflammation of gall bladder, acute means symptoms occur suddenly with increased intensity.

Causes: It is usually secondary to gallstones. Gallstones obstruct the bile flow, which concentrates and becomes infected causing inflammation of gallbladder lining; sometimes-chronic illness also results in cholecystitis.  Females are affected more then males. Fatty or obese people are also at risk.

Symptoms: Patient develops sudden onset of Sharpe pain initially episodic then constant in upper right side of abdomen, often radiating to back or shoulder, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, fever and general malaise. Patients will complain of clay colored greasy stools due to non-digestion of fats sometime jaundice is also present. Sometimes it leads to complications like abscess formation and gangrene which leads to gallbladder rupture and peritonitis, symptoms of peritonitis then are present like abdominal swelling , fever , vomiting, shock with electrolyte and fluid imbalance.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is easy on examination. Abdomen is tender on right upper quadrant. Ultrasound abdomen is confirmatory tool in making diagnosis.

Treatment: Patient is kept on IV fluids and is not allowed to take anything by mouth; antibiotics are given to prevent superimposed infection. Mild cases respond to conservative treatment, patients are advised to take low fat diet. However, severe cases leading to abscess and gangrene of gall bladder requires immediate surgery to avoid perforation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Cholecystitis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Cor Pulmonale:  
Acute Cor Pulmonale: In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Cor Pulmonale and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Gastritis:  
Acute Gastritis: It is inflammation of stomach lining of short duration .A number of causes can cause acute gastritis.

Most common  are use of  some drugs like non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs used for arthritis and other inflammatory disorders, infection with certain organisms like with bacterium called helicobacter pylori, spicy foods and acidic drinks, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuses, stress, accidental  ingestion of  some caustic substance  etc.

Whatever the cause condition comprises of excessive secretion of   acid and destruction of stomach lining, certain autoimmune disorders can also cause gastritis.

Symptoms: Acute gastritis represent with sudden onset of epigastria burning and pain, nausea vomiting, abdominal discomfort, loss of appetite and indigestion. Sometimes ulcers form on inner lining of stomach that can bleed and results in melena or black stools.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually made by history, question about life style, history of any addiction and   use of drugs reveals the story, blood tests to detect the H pylori antibody are also helpful, sometimes endoscopy is required to detect the ulcers but is rare in acute cases.

Treatment: Treatment is according to cause. Antibiotic are required to eradicate the infection. Medicines are given to inhibit acid release from stomach mucosa, some medicines are designed to make protective coating on stomach surface to avoid damage and to prevent ulcer formation, cessation of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, and advices are given, not to eat spicy acidic foods. Milk is advised to drink because of its soothing and neutral effect on stomach.

In this page, we are going to discuss about acute gastritis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Lambar Disc Prolapse:  
Lower Back Acute Lambar Disc Prolapse: Acute lumbar disc prolapsed is major cause of lower back pain, it is a condition in which intervertebral disc in the region of lumbar spine gets herniated or prolapsed and produce pressure on nearby nerves which is perceived as pain.

It is also accompanied by numbness, weakness and abnormal sensation in the leg or feet. To understand this condition, knowing anatomy of spinal cord or backbone is essential; our back bone is made-up of bones called vertebrae, there are five vertebrae or bones in lumbar region at lower back, these are called lumbar vertebrae, space between these bones is filled with a disc which allow flexibility and movement of vertebral column and act as shock absorber.

This disc when dislocated from its normal space, gives pressure on surrounding structures and produce symptoms of lumbar disc prolapse. Causes of this condition are aging, bad postures during work, excessive weight bearing or doing heavy exercises or could be trauma or severe blow at lower back.

Diagnosis is made by history, physical and neurological examination. X ray and other radiological techniques are used to confirm the diagnosis in severe cases. Most of the time acute prolapse responds to rest, pain killers and physiotherapy, major prolapse with complications need surgery but surgery has unreliable results so better to prevent this condition by safety measures like daily mild exercises and adequate diet rich in calcium and vitamins.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Lambar Disc Prolapse and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Laryngitis:  
Acute Laryngitis: Acute laryngitis is acute inflammation of larynx. It is caused by infections; viral infections are most common. Environmental pollutants like smoke, dust, activated charcoal, cigarette smoking, and alcohol abuse are risk factors.  Voice overuse as lengthy talks of long duration as seen in teachers or telephone operators, or voice abuse as in, excessive crying, and shouting are the major causes.

Cold or sour drinks, or very spicy foods various food allergies can cause this condition; these foods result in laryngeal mucosal irritation and results in inflammation. Various autoimmune disorders also results in laryngitis.

Symptoms:  Hallmark of acute laryngitis is hoarse voice, other findings are difficulty in speech, difficulty in swallowing, strider, cough, sore throat and symptoms of underlying condition like fever, chills, malaise in upper respiratory tract infections are usually present. Symptoms usually persist for seven to ten days and then resolve. Acute laryngitis is mostly self-limited.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by history and examination, laryngoscopy and throat examination are done and useful Treatment. X ray chest and CT scan is helping to find out the underlying disease.

Treatment: Treatment  is according to symptoms, rest of voice is most important, humidified air and steam inhalation are soothing, antibiotics should not be give routinely and without proper evaluation because most of the cases are self limited and only require supportive treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Laryngitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Mastoiditis:  
Acute Mastoiditis: Acute mastoiditis is complication of middle ear infection called otitis media. In this disease mastoid bone which is present behind the ear and has connections with middle ear is infected by progression of middle ear infection.

Acute mastoiditis usually occurs in childhood but can also occur in adults. Symptoms are fever, headache, lethargy, and discharge from ears, redness swelling and tenderness behind the ears, swollen and bulging ears and irritability. Infection can spread outside the bone to cause sever complications. If untreated it can cause meningitis, brain abscess or permanent hearing loss.

Diagnosis should be done by thorough ear examinations, history, signs and symptoms, culture of ear discharge and x ray of skull which shows infection in mastoid bone in complicated cases. CT and MRI scans are necessary to know extent of bone and nerve damage.

Once diagnosis is made antibiotics should be started promptly first empirically and then according to culture report, sometimes surgery is needed like myringotomy to drain infected fluid and mastoidectomy to remove the infected bone and to prevent further spread to skull bones. In short, middle ear infections should not be considered minor and prompt diagnosis and treatment should be done to avoid life threatening infections particularly in children.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Mastoiditis and types of Acute Mastoiditis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Mountain Sickness:  
Acute Mountain Sickness: Acute mountain sickness is an illness, which occurs in persons exposed to high altitudes. At the height of 8000 feet or more symptoms begin to start. Those people who go to hilly and mountainous areas usually first time in their lives, hikers and tourists usually develop illness. Symptoms usually start after 12 to 24 hours on reaching high altitudes, initially mild symptoms are there like dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, headache,nausea, vomiting loss of appetite, disturbed sleep and general malaise, patient feels extreme weakness and unable to walk, all these symptoms occur as a result of cerebral hypoxia and cerebral edema, symptoms resolve with descent to lower heights and rest and taking medications for the symptoms. In severe cases patient develop progressive dyspepsia, extreme headache, nausea, vomiting; increased weakness; resulting in cessation of body movement and mental co ordination, patient may get unconscious. Immediate descent is necessary at this stage to prevent coma and irreversible brain injury due to hypoxia. People who are hikers, tourists or adventurers must have oxygen cylinders and first aid equipments with them to avoid this condition. Treatment of acute mountain sickness is only acclimatization and descent to lower altitudes if life is to be saved. In this page, we are going to discuss about acute mountain sickness and types of Acute Mountain Sickness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Prostatitis:  
Acute Prostatitis: Acute prostatitis is inflammation of prostate that occurs suddenly and of shorter duration.

Acute prostates are medical emergency and should be dealt with actively other wise it can because serious complications like sepsis.

You might not know about the prostate, prostate is a male reproductive gland attached to bladder and connected with urethra through ducts it secretes secretion, which neutralizes the acidity of vaginal fluid, and secrete different enzymes, which provide favorable environment for sperms and increase their survival.

Prostate gets inflamed by direct bacterial infection, repeated urinary tract infection, enlarged prostate that occurs in old age, sexually transmitted disease can also spread from penis to prostatate, diabetes and immune compromised states predispose to prostatits, among these bacterial infections are most common.

Symptoms are fever, general malaise, pain full urination and ejaculation, passage of blood, pus, or foul smelling discharge from penis, blood and pus may come from urine.

There is pain in back, groins and sides of waist and in area around anus. Usually it is diagnosed on physical examination, for this rectal examination is done on which palpable tender prostate is felt.

Other tests are urinalysis and culture of urine and semen ray and ultrasound give some clue. Treatment includes immediate hospitalization and immediate start of IV antibiotics to avoid complications.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Prostatitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Renal Failure:  
Acute Renal Failure: In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Renal Failure  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Toxic Gastritis:  
Acute Toxic Gastritis: Acute toxic gastritis is acute sudden inflammation of stomach mucosa by ingestion of poisons, which might be acids or alkali. Poisoning may be accidental or suicidal. Some serious infections with lethal organism can also be included in this category.

Moreover, some mechanical substances can also be ingested as suicidal attempt to produce toxic effects like in ground glass ingestion. Whatever the cause maybe its very serious condition requiring immediate evaluation and treatment otherwise death occurs within hours to days.

Symptoms: Patient  abruptly develops severe uncontrolled vomiting, containing mucous, blood  and ingested material, epigastria burning and pain which is crushing in nature, abdominal cramps sometimes diarrhea, heart rate will be increased with increased pulse, sweating , cold clammy skin and symptoms of shock  including elevation or decrease in temperature.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually done by examination and history but there is hardly any time to give significance to diagnosis, some poisoning substances have specific odors and kind of vomit us, which can be distinguished from one another.

Treatment: Treatment includes immediate stomach wash with neutralizing agent or antidote if poison is recognized. IV line should be maintained   and fluid replacement should be done to give cardiovascular support and to relieve state of shock.

Sedatives should be given to relieve symptoms of anxiety and depression.

In this page, we are going to discuss about acute toxic gastritis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Acute Yellow Atrophy:  
Acute Yellow Atrophy: Acute liver atrophy is very progressive and lethal condition in which liver parenchyma rapidly shrinks in size and becomes yellow due to variety of causes like toxins, poisons, Hepatitis and it even sometimes occurs in pregnancy.

Chloroform poisoning is major cause of liver atrophy. If untreated it has high mortality rates. It can appear suddenly in patients with chronic hepatitis.

Symptoms: Patient suddenly develops fever, jaundice that is very deep, abdominal pain, tremors that are involuntary movements of different parts of body, are present, patient can develop seizures or fits, pulse initially is low then becomes high, breathing becomes difficult, and patient develops bruises on skin or rectal bleeding ultimately patient goes into disseminated intramuscular coagulation, renal failure and coma.

Diagnosis: It can be made by history and examination and liver function tests or LFTs. These tests are supportive for diagnosis; exact diagnosis is made by liver biopsy.

Treatment: Treatment is only supportive with symptomatic treatment and treatment for avoiding complications. Liver transplantation is the only solution of this problem.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Yellow Atrophy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Addison Disease:  
Addison Disease: Addisonís disease is a disorder in which adrenal glands are failed to produce hormones, there are two  adrenal glands are present in body present each above the surface of kidneys, these are small leaf shaped glands and produce hormones  which control metabolism of  food particles and prepares body in time of any emergency.

Adrenal glands produce steroid hormones, which require cholesterol for their synthesis, most common cause of Addisonís disease is autoimmune in which antibodies are formed against adrenal gland, some tumors which spread to adrenal gland from other organs can also cause it especially lung cancer. Other causes are genetic, corticosteroid drug withdrawal without tapering of dose, metabolic errors in which cholesterol cannot be metabolized to prepare adrenal hormones.

Symptoms: Symptoms are low blood pressure, fatigue, lightheadedness on standing up, muscle weakness, weight loss. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain are also present which can be confused with GI infections. There is pigmentation of skin on palms, genitals, lips and sites of friction like ankles and elbows.

Diagnosis:  Measurement of adrenal hormones is required to make diagnosis. On blood tests there is low blood sugar and sodium levels, serum calcium and potassium levels are elevated. Ultrasound, CT and MRI scans are helpful in detecting any tumors or destruction of gland.

Treatment:
It is treated by giving steroid hormones. In case of stress, surgery, trauma and pregnancy; treatment dose has to be increased so patients with Addisonís disease must have their follow-ups done by doctor time to time to avoid any serious condition.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Addison Disease and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Adenoids:  
Adenoids: Adenoids are small lymphoid tissue like tonsils at the back wall of throat and the posterior openings of nose where nose and throat merge.

They cannot be seen on opening the mouth as in case of tonsil. Like tonsils, they also fight against the germs present in food and inspired air. Adenoids are present in early years of life, regress in size at of age of 3 or 5, and disappear later in adult life. Inflammation or infection of adenoids occurs usually together with tonsillitis.

When adenoids are enlarged, the condition is called adenoid hypertrophy.

Symptoms of enlarged adenoids:  since they are present at the junction of both nose and ear openings in throat, they produce symptoms, which show involvement of these organ.

They cause difficulty in breathing, snoring, mouth breathing, open mouth during the day, sleep apnea or episodic cessation of breathing during sleep, dry mouth, bad smell in breath and they can also cause infections of ear like otitis media.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by throat examination by flexible endoscope, which can enter the deep part of throat. Signs and symptoms by themselves points toward diagnosis.

Treatment: Treatment is antibiotics to eradicate the infection along with symptomatic treatment like painkillers for pain relief. If adenoids are large enough to occlude the respiratory passages and breathing problems or repeated ear infections then it must be removed by a surgery called adenoidectomy, it is usually done simultaneously with tonsillectomy.

In this page, we are going to discuss about adenoids and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
ADPKD:  
ADPKD: In this page, we are going to discuss about ADPKD  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Albuminuria:  
Albuminuria: In this page, we are going to discuss about Albuminuria  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Alcohal:  
Alcohol: Alcohol is most common recreational drug, it is CNS depressant. It is metabolized by liver and produces euphoria, relaxation and most people use it to relax themselves and to release daily life stresses. Alcohol intoxication can be lethal in moderate doses it is readily metabolized by liver with out any adverse effects but heavy intake results in life threatening symptoms with liver failure.

Symptoms: Loss of balance, abnormal gait, increased sense of well being, slurred speech, nausea, excessive vomiting, dehydration and red eyes and face. Acute alcohol poisoning can cause coma and death within short period of time. Respiratory rate is very much decreased in alcohol poisoning approx. less then eight breaths per minute.

(Normal respiratory rate is twenty breaths per minute). Respiratory depression cause cold clammy skin with blue extremities due to oxygen deprivation, it progresses to complete cessation of respiration, coma, and death.

Diagnosis:
Blood alcohol levels are diagnostic of its overdose or poisoning and correlate with outcome.

Treatment:
Goal of treatment is to stop respiratory depression and prevent choking or aspiration. Basic cardio respiratory support is given with endotracheal intubation with oxygen and artificial respiration, fluid replacement with electrolyte therapy, control of hypoglycemia and seizures are necessary. Hemodialysis is needed in severe cases, vitamin B12 or thymine supplementation is given to prevent neuronal damage.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Alcohol and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Allergy:  
Allergy: Skin allergy is a common problem and affects many people worldwide without any racial or sex differences. Skin is very sensitive organ and it acts as a shield against many environmental offenders like irritants, microorganisms and allergens.

Skin responds to these offenders by producing allergic reaction against them thus alerting body for future defense.  Skin allergies can be caused by variety of causes, like fabric, food, certain objects like carpet, plastics, irritants like plant pollens and chemicals.

Most common causes are dust, chemicals like detergents and soaps, insect bites and stings, foods like fish, egg and milk, sometimes skin allergies are side effects of some drugs.

Symptoms: Allergies usually present as red colored macules, or papules, wheels, or flares, swelling, itching and redness of widespread areas. These lesions can be limited to small areas or cover extensive areas of skin. Sometimes skin allergy shows itself as itching only and sometime only red macules are present.

Treatment: Most skin allergies  respond to anti allergic drugs, these drugs are useful to decrease symptoms, removal of cause is most important, it is necessary to detect the cause and avoid contact with that like removal of carpets from home if a   person is allergic to carpet fiber or avoiding food which is causing the allergic symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Allergy  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Alopecia Areata:  
Alopecia Areata: In this page, we are going to discuss about Alopecia Areata  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Amenorrhea:  
Amenorrhea: Absence of menstrual flow or menstruation is called amenorrhea. It is of two types, primary and secondary. Primary amenorrhea is inability to achieve menarche at the age of 14 or 16 years, menarche is the age at which a girl starts first menstrual cycle. Secondary amenorrhea is one in which women suddenly stopped menstruating after previously normal menstrual cycles.

Causes of cessation of menstruation are either focused to lower genital tract, to ovaries or to brain. Blockage of vagina by steno sis, infections, polyps or tumors and imperforate hymen is main cause of primary amenorrhea, hormonal imbalance, genetic disorders, and abnormal development of gonads or genitals are major causes.

Hormonal problems  in which ovary fails to produce hormones  and produce ova is another cause, some brain tumors can cause amenorrhea, amenorrhea can also be caused by obesity, excessive exercise, dieting, stress and oral contraceptive drugs, alcohol, smoking, heroine, and  cocaine abuse.

Physiological amenorrhea occurs during pregnancy, breast feeding, before menarche and menopause. Thorough history examination and investigations are required to diagnose the cause of amenorrhea. Mechanical factors like imperforate hymen is detect by vaginal examination. Blood tests, measuring hormonal levels, ultrasound, electroencephalography or visualization of tubes for blockage after injecting dye, CT and MRI scans to detect tumors are tools to diagnose. 

Treatment is done by stopping provoking factors like stopping exercise and drugs, proper diet, maintaining normal weight, cessation of smoking and alcohol, relief of stress. Mechanical blockages are treated by surgical correction, hormonal imbalance is treated by medications, prescription of medication requires thorough workup, and treatment of amenorrhea should be done by qualified gynecologist.

In this page, we are going to discuss about amenorrhea  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anal Fissure:  
Anal Fissure: Anal fistula is abnormal connection between anal canal and skin. It is formed secondary to anal abscess in which anal glands, which are located around the anal sphincter, become infected with formation of pus.

A path or small canal is formed to drain this pus to outside called fistula .Exact etiology of abscess formation is not known but when openings of glands are blocked they become infected and form abscess. Abscess is collection of bacteria, and white blood cells.  Fistula may recur after treatment.

Symptoms: Patient complaints of pain and swelling on anal area. There is fever, chills and lethargy, some times anal purities or itching is also present if fistula begins to secrete infected secretion or pus or even feces from opening.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made on examination. There is swelling in anal area, area is highly painful to touch, and sometimes there is obvious opening on skin draining pus or feces. Blood tests show increased white cell count.

Treatment: Treatment is done by giving antibiotics and painkillers. Anal fistula requires surgery to be repaired. It should be done in expert hands and short hospital stay is required in these cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Anal Fissure and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anal Fistula:  
Anal Fistula: Anal fissure is a tear in anal canal which is very painful and discomforting. Anal fissures are usually linear and occur in posterior wall of anus.

Causes: most common cause is constipation in which hard feces causes trauma and tears in anal muscles. Anal fissures can be developed during difficult delivery of a baby in which tear in vagina extends to anus.

Anal fissure can be a symptom of more severe intestinal diseases like anal cancer and crohnís diseases. Direct trauma to anus as occurs instrumental injury; in giving forceful enema, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy can also cause fissure.

Symptoms: Anal fissure presents with pain in anus and bleeding per rectum. 80% of patients have constipation. Sometimes burning and itching is also present in case of stool leakage from fissure.

Diagnosis: Proper history and examination is mandatory for making diagnosis. History of constipation and indigestion is present, patient tells about presence of blood in stool, rectal examination clearly detects the presence of break or linear tear in rectal mucosa.

Treatment: Anal fissures are treated by giving remedies, which soften the stool and treat constipation. Patients are advised to drink a lot of water and high fiber diet. Local antiseptic and analgesic creams are given to relive pain and discomfort. Small fissures usually respond to conservative management. Final treatment is surgical repair of tear if fissure is large enough to cause severe pain and bleeding.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Anal Fistula and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Analgesic Nephropathy:  
Analgesic Nephropathy: In this page, we are going to discuss about Analgesic Nephropathy  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anam Itching Puritis:  
Anam Itching Puritis: Anam is small opening through which stools are passed. It is very delicate area, lined by mucous membrane internally, and skin externally. It is prone to get irritated and inflamed because of presence of moisture and infective organisms in feces and urine.

Causes: Anal itching is caused most commonly by Candida infection which is fungal infection of skin, presence of worms in intestine which are passed in stools also and cause both physical itching due to crawling on skin and chemical irritation by producing inflammation. Worms are common in children and major cause of anal itching in this age group, presence of anal fissure, anal tags and hemorrhoids can also caused itching. Continuous leakage of stool or stool incontinence causes itching.

It occurs in case of frequent watery diarrhea, stroke and certain neuromuscular disorders in which anal sphincter loose its tone and cause leakage. Unhygienic conditions of anal area like wearing same undergarments for prolonged time, infrequent bathing, excessive sweating, and improper washing of anal area after passing stools are major causes of anal itching.

Symptoms: Symptoms are burning, itching and strong desire to scratch the skin of anus, excessive scratching can cause secondary bacterial infections like boils. Sometimes associated findings are there like diarrhea or constipation in case of hemorrhoids.

Diagnosis: It is made by examination. Thorough examination of anal area is necessary to see the cause. Internal rectal examination is also done to detect fissure and hemorrhoids. Stool D/R is detailed report of microscopic examination of stools and can reveal occult blood, cysts or ova of worms. Sometimes in case pf women; vaginal discharge is present which mostly contains Candida, which a fungus.

Treatment: Treatment is done by correcting the cause and anti allergic drugs. Patients ate advised to keep the anal area dry and clean. Local antiseptic and antifungal creams and ointments also help.
 
In this page, we are going to discuss about Anam Itching Puritis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Andomysial And Tissue:  
Andomysial And Tissue: Radiation enteritis is inflammation of small intestine due to radiation exposure. Radiations are high-energy particles, which are used to diagnose different diseases like x rays, and they are used to kill cancer cells. Radiation exposure may be accidental, It can occur in workers who work in radiation plants, or people working in radiological departments of laboratories or hospitals, or exposure may be result of radiation treatment of cancer patients. 

Patients with abdominal cancers like ovarian, uterine liver, prostate or colon cancer are at greater risk of radiation enteritis. Radiation sickness may be acute or chronic.

Symptoms: Acute cases usually present with diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, it usually resolves after 3 to 5 days. In case of chronic cases, there is chronic diarrhea, Weight loss, nutritional deficiencies due to mal absorption, loss of appetite, blood or mucous in stools. Abdominal pain, abdominal bloating, pain on passing stool, and stool urgency or bowel irritability are also present.

Treatment:  Treatment is done by giving steroid drugs along with fluid replacement by IV route. Supportive treatment is done painkillers, and drugs to decrease nausea and vomiting, patients are given balanced diet with vitamin and mineral supplement. For cancer patients, radiation dose is decreased or stopped for short period.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Andomysial And Tissue and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Androgen Alopesia:  
Androgen Alopesia: Androgenic alopecia is a condition of hair loss, which is typically found in males, this pattern comprises of hair loss from temples, crowns, or from top pf the scalp, or from sides of head. Androgenic alopecia can be found in both sexes. Women do not have typical pattern of hair fall rather they have diffuse pattern and hairs are thin and shed in large numbers.

Causes: Elevated levels of androgens, which are male sex hormones, play a role in development of this type of baldness. Genetics is also important, majority of patients are having family history of same type of baldness in parents or close relatives. Women who have reproductive problems or tumors of sex glands are prone to develop this type of baldness.

Diagnosis: Blood tests reveal elevated levels of androgens and serum insulin levels , direct examination of hairs and hair follicles under the microscope called tracheotomy is rarely done , in severe cases where alopecia occur at younger age;  biopsy is done to know the cause.

Treatment: Most of the people become tolerant to this condition by assuming it as part of aging process. Treatment often requires at young age and in women, hair transplants can be done to restore the lost hairs. High protein diet is helpful in treating this condition like fish, chicken, beans and pulses.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Androgen Alopesia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anemia:  
Anemia: Anemia is a blood disorder caused by deficiency of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is an iron containing protein, which is responsible for delivering oxygen in body. Most of anemia is caused by iron deficiency. Some are caused by vitamin deficiency like vitamin B 12. Some anemia are result of complication of some intrinsic disease like liver disease. Some metabolic diseases and genetic diseases also result in anemia. Person having anemia will have pale look, feels lethargic, develop shortness of breath, fragile nails and hairs and prone to infections. Awareness should be given to patients about causes of anemia because it is preventable disease by taking good diet, and screening tests are available which can detect any kind of anemia at early stage. In this page, we are going to discuss about malaria and types of Anemia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Angina:  
Angina: In this page, we are going to discuss about Angina  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment Chest pain arising as a result of spasm or sudden ischemia of heart blood vessels is called angina, ischemia is oxygen deficiency due to any cause, usually causes of ischemia are occlusion of arteries by clots or tumors, vessel disease, spasm or contraction of smooth muscles present in walls of vessels.

Angina can be initiated by stress or exertion or also can occur at arrest. Causes of narrowing of heart blood vessels are atherolsclerosis or thickening of vessels by deposits of cholesterol, high blood pressure, thromboembolism, tumors or masses, inflammatory deposits as occurs in some autoimmune disorders. Smoking, diabetes and stress are common risk factors for development of angina.

Symptoms are sudden gripping, pricking or sharp pain lasting more then fifteen minutes some times associated with sweating, shortness of breath, cool and pale extremities. Often angina presents only as dull discomfort without actual pain. Angina is sign indicating imminent myocardial infarction or heart attack so must be diagnosed and treated promptly. Investigation and close watch on health of patient should do follow up of patients. 

Diagnosis is done by well-known procedure of ECG and exercise tolerance test. Blood tests should be done for checking cholesterol and sugar levels.

Treatment is done by, immediate sublingual drugs, which dilate the blood vessels and restore oxygen supply to heart muscles, anti coagulant therapy should be started empirically in these patients to prevent heart attacks, low salt and low fats diet, avoidance of stress and severe exertions, and light exercises like walking and jogging are helpful in preventing future attacks.

ent in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Angio Oedema:  
Angio Oedema: Angioedema is allergic reaction in which swelling develops on face, especially around mouth and eyes, swelling can develop in internal organs like in mucous membranes of digestive tract and throat leading to life threatening complications.

Angioedema is of two types; one is hereditary and other one is acquired, acquired angioedema precipitates from some external stimulus like drugs, foods, some skin trauma, stress, exercise and surgery.

In this type of angioedema urticarial rashes are also present which distinguishes it from hereditary form. Hereditary angioedema is caused by genetic defect in complement system, which triggers allergic reactions in body. Patient develops swelling of face, mouth, eyes and throat leading to breathing difficulty, sridor and tightening feeling in throat, there is itching and pain in acquired types but there is no itching in hereditary type. Patient has decreased sensation on these areas; there could be abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting if gastrointestinal system is involved.

No cause can be identified for hereditary angioedema but it can be induced by trauma or some operation, diagnosis is made by clinical history, physical examination and blood tests, in acquired type there is history of exposure to dome food or other allergen.

Hereditary angioedema does not respond to anti allergic drugs and steroids, there is complement factors abnormalities on blood tests. Acquired cases responds to anti allergic drugs, steroids and vasodilators, heredity angioedema requires transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, avoiding inciting cause is important in both types.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Angio Oedema and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Angiotestin Converting Enzyme:  
Angiotestin Converting Enzyme: Angiotensin converting enzymes is exopeptide or a circulating enzyme released from pulmonary and renal endothelium. They help in bodyís regulation of blood pressure control by various mechanisms.

They covert angiotensin from its inactivated form:
1.    Angiotensin to its activated form angiotensin
2.    Angiotensins are peptides or substances whish are smaller then proteins and are responsible for the constriction or contraction of smooth muscles in blood vessels.
As a result of vasoconstriction internal diameter of blood vessels decreases which in turn leads to increase in blood pressure, this is an important mechanism for control of blood pressure in body and is under the influence off neurological control.

In response to low blood volume and blood pressure. Renal epithelium secretes protein called rennin which acts as an enzyme and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin 1. Angiotensinogen is protein secreted by liver. Angiotensin 1 is converted to its activated form called angiotensin 2 by ACE which results in vasoconstriction and elevation of blood pressure as described earlier. It also inactivates other vasoconstrictors like bradykinin in blood since ACE is secreted by lung and renal endothelium.

Its serum levels are important diagnostic tool and increased or decreased in some diseases. Normal adult serum ACE levels are less then 40 micrograms. l.  Serum levels are increased in alcoholics diabetics, leprosy, tuberculosis ,nephritic syndrome ,certain lung cancers, hyperthyroidism and specially raised in sarcoidosis a connective tissue diseases of lung. While serum levels are decreased in Steroid therapy, hyopothyroidism, chronic liver diseases and anorexia nervosa; an eating disorder.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Angiotestin Converting Enzyme and types of Angiotestin Converting Enzyme, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ankylosing Spondylitis:  
Ankylosing Spondylitis: Ankylosing spondylitis is a primary disease in a group of conditions called Seronegative spondyloarthropathies. It is chronic inflammation of joints and involves spine, hip, knee, and ankle joints. Patients get pain and stiffness in these joints fatigue, low-grade fever, difficulty in spending the chest. Other organs are also involved like heart, gastrointestinal tract, skin, lungs and eye. Cause is mainly genetics, patients have history of family disease, and there is strong association of this disorder with HLA B27 antigen, which is present normally in 8% of population. People with this antigen eventually develop spondylitis in life. Some food allergies are also associated with this condition. Treatment is anti inflammatory drugs, and joint exercises. In this page, we are going to discuss about Ankylosing Spondylitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anorexia Nervosa:  
Anorexia Nervosa: Anorexia nervosa is disorder in which person eats very little and intentionally inhibits hunger without any organic diseases. It usually occurs in nervous, over anxious people, in young girls due to fear of being obese, in young children and students and in people with severe depression. It is more common in females then males.

Symptoms: Individuals with this disorder look very lean and underweight for their age and height.

They have low BMI. They are continuously engaged in doing weight-loosing exercises. Different kinds of malnutrition are there due to poor eating, patients are lethargic, and have fluctuating moods, dry flaky hairs, anemia, dry skin, swollen salivary glands, lack of initiation of normal menses in girls, delayed signs of puberty in both sexes, liver enlargement, growth restriction is present in children.

Psychological symptoms, like checking weight repeatedly, induced vomiting, checking physique in mirror, all are present.

Diagnosis: It is done through thorough history and examination, family history is usually present but not always. Different blood tests are required to see iron deficiency liver impairment etc. ultrasound is helpful to exclude any organic cause, height and weight measurements are important for knowing BMI.

Treatment: Treatment is by psychological therapy and correcting malnutrition by food and vitamin supplements. Whole family is involved to counsel and keep watch on patient, sometimes hospitalization is required to give intravenous replacement of fluid and electrolytes.

In this page, we are going to discuss about anorexia nervous and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anti GBM Disease:  
Anti GBM Disease: In this page, we are going to discuss about Anti GBM Disease  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Anxeity Neurosis:  
Anxiety Neurosis: It is a type of neurosis in which person have uncontrolled and unpredictable reaction to unfavorable conditions and events in life. It is a combination of physical, psychological and emotional response, which is exaggerated, and person cannot cope with the expected danger and situations in life.

Symptoms are  desire to be isolated or live alone, alternating feeling of hope and hopelessness, sadness, fear of future, helplessness, excessive crying, sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, lack of appetite, vertigo or headache, chest pain or throat tightness, shortness off breath, irritability, loss of interest in  activity or loss of sex desire and impulsive or over reactive acts. Anxiety neurosis   is not associated with any chronic disease or illness and people are usually medically fit.

History is the only way to diagnose it, since it is mental disorder. Treatment options are psychotherapy and behavioral therapy often conducted in groups, patients are taught about techniques to overcome the anxiety, meditation, yoga and light exercises are also helpful; in severe cases anti depressants and sedatives are used to decrease symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Anxiety Neurosis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Aortic Regurgitation:  
Aortic Regurgitation: Also called aortic insufficiency ; it is leaking or backflow of blood from aorta to left ventricle of hear due to improper closure, aorta is largest vessel arising from heart and pump blood to all body, aortic valve is present between aorta and ventricular opening, it may be acute and chronic most common cause of acute aortic  regurgitation  is infective endocarditis, bacteria can attack the damaged valves (rheumatic heart disease is major cause of heart valve damage after rheumatic fever) or reach by blood stream, as occurs in dental procedures without sterilized techniques;  dental plaque contain organisms which can infect heart valves and can damage them, other causes of  aortic regurgitation are aortic root dilation, aortic dissection, reactive arthritis, syphilis, autoimmune disorders lie systemic lupus erythematosus. Hypertension and aging can also be the cause.

Symptoms are shortness of breath on exercise or exertion, palpitation, chest pain, swelling, cyanosis, or fainting or unconsciousness. Diagnosis is done by clinical examination, murmurs are heard on auscultation, and diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography.

It can be treated both medically by drugs and by surgery. Aortic vale replacement gives good results in severe cases. In this page, we are going to discuss about Aortic Regurgitation and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Aortic Stenosis:  
Aortic Stenosis: Obliteration of lumen of aortic valve is called aortic stenosis, stenosis usually results from inflammatory fibrosis as in rheumatic heart disease, or age related calcification or abnormal calcification in some diseases, other risk factors are high blood pressure, diabetes and high blood cholesterol.

Aorta is largest vessel emerging from left side of heart and supply body to all body parts including brain, as a result of its blockage, blood can not come out of the heart and heart failure occurs.

Aortic stenosis symptoms greatly vary depending upon the   degree of stenosis, it might be asymptomatic or develops chest pain, shorten of breath, palpitation and attacks of syncope (syncope is episode of unconsciousness due to loss of blood supply to brain).shortness of breath initially develops at exertion and later at rest also.

Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds which are present on auscultation, doctor can recognize the type of murmur associated with aortic stenosis. Chest X ray, echocardiography and cardiac catheterization are procedures to diagnose aortic stenosis. Like all other heart valve defects, aortic stenosis can also be treated by both medication and valve replacement or repair surgery.

Severe cases involving greater percentage of stenosis have very poor prognosis without surgery. In this page, we are going to discuss about Aortic Stenosis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Aphasia:  
Aphasia: Difficulty or impairment in speech is called aphasia. It occurs as result of brain injury, brain diseases like stroke, Parkinsonism, dementia, brain tumors, brain hemorrhage or brain infection, some viral brain disease like herpes simplex encephalitis can also produce aphasia.

Aphasia can also occur transiently in epilepsy and migraine, Aphasia has many types, it can be acute or chronic. Patient feels difficulty in pronunciation of words, unable to complete sentences or phrases, unable to read and write, and difficulty in naming objects and call people, speak unnecessary words, or long interrupted meaningful words with great effort.

Symptoms of associated brain lesions can also be present like paralysis or weakness of body parts, blurred vision, vomiting headache, and vertigo. Aphasia diagnosis is difficult to make, detailed history is taken and brain functions are evaluated by different tests, aphasia treatment involves neurophysiology, neurosurgeon, and speech therapist, cause should be treated as soon as possible. Speech therapy consists of different techniques and methods; which improve language and speech difficulties.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Aphasia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Aplastic Anemia:  
Aplastic Anemia: This anemia is caused by bone marrow suppression or failure. Bone marrow is present in bones and responsible for manufacturing of all cell lines in blood, these called aplastic because along with RBCs other cells are also deficient or absent from blood. Along with symptoms and signs of anemia patient also has bleeding tendency from minor cuts, bruises and petechae on body.  Nosebleed or rectal bleeding, due to platelets deficiency. There is increases risk of infections due to lack of WBCs. Causes of bone marrow suppression are often autoimmune disorders in which bodiesí own cells attack bone marrow, some drugs and radiation exposure. Treatment is transfusion of blood and blood products and bone marrow transplantation in severe cases.In this page, we are going to discuss about malaria and types of Aplastic Anemia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Apoplexy:  
Apoplexy: In this page, we are going to discuss about Apoplexy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Appendicitis:  
Appendicitis: Appendicitis: Appendicitis is inflammation of appendix. Appendix is small tube like rudimentary part of large intestine that is located in right lower quadrant of abdominal cavity. Appendicitis is more common in children and young adults.

Causes: Exact cause is unknown but appendicitis develops due to obstruction of its lumen by feces, foreign body, or tumors but incidence of tumors is rare. Usually feces are commonly impacted and cause swelling and inflammation of appendix and its surrounding tissues resulting in signs and symptoms.

Symptoms: Patient experiences sudden pain around the umbilicus radiating to right lower part of abdomen, it is sever pain accompanied by fever and vomiting. Sometimes appendix ruptures and results in very critical condition with spread of infection and inflammation to abdominal cavity that is called peritonitis. Peritonitis is medical emergency and requires immediate surgery.

Patient with peritonitis presents with fever and chills, swelling in abdomen, silent abdomen with no gut sounds, increased heart rate and shortness of breath.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by physical examination, patientĎs abdomen is tender or painful to touch in right lower part. Temperature will be elevated. On laboratory test patient white cell count will be raised. Final diagnosis is made by ultrasound, which detects the swollen inflamed appendix.

Treatment: Patient is immediately admitted and not allowed to take anything by mouth and intravenous therapy is initiated to replace body fluid. Antibiotic coverage is given and appendix is removed by surgery, which is called appendectomy.  In case of burst appendix or peritonitis surgeon does immediate laparoscopy.

In this page, we are going to discuss about appendicitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Arsenic:  
Arsenic: Arsenic is natural element found in nature both in organic and inorganic forms, inorganic poisoning  is more lethal  then organic poisoning, people working in industries related to glass work, mining ,semiconductor making factories, beverage and food factories workers  are at risk of developing poisoning, arsenic is found naturally in soil , in underground water resources, insecticides.

Water and food contaminated with arsenic can result in arsenic poisoning, arsenic gas is very dangerous and lethal and its inhalation is possible in industrial accidents. Insecticide spray of food crops is also a major cause. Underground water supply pipes of lead and iron can chemically react with arsenic present in soil and can cause slow chronic poisoning in urban areas.

Symptoms: Acute poisoning results in destruction of red blood dells and release of large amount of hemoglobin in blood causing dark colored urine, nausea , vomiting,  abdominal pain, loose motion and dehydration, dizziness, confusion and unconsciousness, chronic exposure results in skin conditions like pigmentation, skin warts, inflammation, cardiac and renal problems, arsenic is strong carcinogenic agent it can cause cancers on long term exposure particularly arsenic is associated with lung, skin and kidney and urinary bladder cancer.

Diagnosis:
History and examination is very important for making diagnosis, history of occupation and exposure is very helpful in making diagnosis. , definitive diagnosis is made by measuring blood and urine levels of arsenic, victims of arsenic poisoning have characteristic smell resembling garlic in their breath and urine. It can give clue to doctors.

Treatment: Basic cardiopulmonary support with immediate hem dialysis and use of chelating agents which bind to arsenic particles and prevent further absorption is used to save life, since arsenic destroys red blood cells, exchange transfusions are necessary to replace the poisoned blood.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Arsenic and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Arterial Ulcers:  
Arterial Ulcers: Arterial ulcers develop due to blockage of arterial flow due to clot, inflammation or tumor within arteries. These ulcers are found in  feet especially on lateral side of ankles or in webs between toes, these ulcers are very painful, small, with well defined margins, they arise due to ischemia or interruption of blood flow or oxygen supply to involved area, so these ulcers often do not bleed.

In case of inadequate treatment superimposed infection occur leading to gangrene. Adjoining area of skin gets dry and scaly, cold and clammy due to lack of blood supply, arterial ulcers are diagnosed by physical examination and Doppler studies to detect arterial disease, sometimes angiography is necessary to locate the exact artery, which is involved. These ulcers require special care, treatment goal is to improve blood flow and prevent further aggravation of ulcer by wound care.

Pain killers are advised for severe pain, oral drugs for atherosclerotic clots are used maintain blood flow of arteries, sometimes surgery is necessary to open the blocked arteries. Ulcers require regular dressings and antibiotics to prevent and treat any infection, if gangrene develops active wound debridement is necessary. Patients are advised to use fat free diet and vitamin C supplements are prescribed to promote healing.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Arterial Ulcers and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Arthritis:  
Arthritis: Arthritis is inflammation of joints. Arthritis is common problem and cause of discomfort and disability, joints can be damaged by many factors like trauma or injury, age, lack of exercise or physical activity, infection, spread of disease from bones, autoimmune disorders and continues wear and tear or friction.

Arthritis usually develops in old age but can also occur in children and young adults in case of autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are those in which body develops antibodies against its own tissues and destroys them.

Types of arthritis
There are many types of arthritis; most common and prevalent forms are given below.

Osteoarthritis
This type of arthritis is common in old age and more common in females, in obese people and people who have lack of physical activity. Osteoarthritis affects weight-bearing joints of body like knee, hip, and hands. Weight or injury can result in destruction of joints and inflammation. Symptoms are pain, stiffness of joints, swelling and immobility. Pain gets worse after physical activity or exercise. X rays showing destruction of joint can make diagnosis. Pain gets worse in morning. Anti-inflammatory drugs, moderate physical exercises and weight loss treat osteoarthritis. In extreme cases joint replacement surgery is done. Physiotherapy plays an important role in treating arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis
Antibodies are formed against joint tissue resulting in its destruction in an autoimmune disease. It affects small joints of hands, fingers, elbow and knees; there is pain, stiffness, swelling and deformity of joints. Pain gets worse in morning, in most people an antibody is detected on blood test called RA factor, which is diagnostic, steroids, physiotherapy, treat it and like osteoarthritis, surgery is required in marked deformity and inability to move the joint.

Gouty arthritis
It is a type of arthritis which results from deposition of uric acid crystals within joint space, these crystals cause inflammation and deformity of joints, sometimes calcium pyrophosphate crystals are deposited; this condition is called pseudogout.

This type of arthritis affects single joint initially but later involve multiple joints, diagnoses are made by blood tests, which reveal increased uric acid level and x rays of affected joints. Gout responds to anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs, which lower uric acid levels. Patients are advised to avoid red meat, spinach and tomatoes because these diets contain uric acid and calcium. Physiotherapy greatly helps in improving mobility and flexibility of joints.


Infectious arthritis
As its name implies this type of arthritis results from bacterial invasion of joints. This is most dangerous type because if not treated infection rapidly destroys the joints and its surrounding structures. Septic or infectious arthritis results from injury to bone or joints in case of road traffic accidents or it  spreads to joint from some other body part like bone or skin  fistula, it can occur in association with sepsis, or untreated complicated fractures can also lead to this type of arthritis. Symptoms are severe pain, fever, chills, swelling and hot tender joints.

X rays and culture of synovial fluid make diagnosis, (synovial fluid is present in space between the joints and provides lubrication to joint surfaces).

Oral or intravenous antibiotics along with drainage of infected synovial fluid do treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Arthritis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ascites:  
Ascites: Abnormal collection of fluid in peritoneal cavity of abdomen is called ascites. It may be mild or massive resulting in much discomfort and visible with eyes.

Causes: Liver cirrhosis or liver failure   is the most common cause of ascites. Other causes are heart failure, renal failure, constrictive pericarditis, infections like abdominal tuberculosis, cancers of peritoneum or other abdominal cancers, pancreatitis, vasculitis and venoocclusive diseases, hypothyroidism and hypoallergenic.
   
Symptoms: Abdomen is distended with shortness of breath because of pressure on chest, symptoms of underlying disease are present like, bruises and jaundice due to liver involvement, decreased urine flow in case of renal failure, shortness of breath and chest pain and decreased exercise tolerance in heart failure, edema of other parts of body are also present, weight loss and decreased appetite in cancers.

Diagnosis:  Ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool. Mild ascites is felt on abdominal examination by doctor. Different blood tests like CBC, liver function test, UCEs, and protein A/G ratio are helpfully to know the exact cause. Fluid is drained and sent in lab to know the type of ascetic fluid and Ascitic fluid culture helps in diagnosis of any infective cause. 

Treatment:  Treatment depends on cause; generally patients are put on salt free diet with advise to have low water intake, drugs to increase urine flow are used to decrease fluid from body,  percutaneous or ultrasound guided  drainage of ascetic  fluid  is very effective tool along with treating primary disease.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Ascites and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Aspirin:  
Aspirin: Aspirin is a drug used to relive pain, fever and inflammatory conditions. Aspirin also act as an anticoagulant by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Platelets are cells which are responsible for clotting of blood after bleeding from cuts and injuries; abnormal activation of these cells in body results in formation of clots or plugs which block the blood flow to tissues and organs resulting in damage like heart attacks, stroke and high blood pressure.

Aspirin is easily available in markets and people use it with out proper prescription of doctor for minor pain and fever. Aspirin can be taken in large doses for suicidal attempts and accidental poisoning is common in children and old people.

Symptoms: Aspirin poisoning may be mild and could be very severe, initial symptoms are vomiting, and ringing in ears, low blood pressure, impaired vision, fever, dehydration and episodes of  fainting. With very high doses; patient develops rapid breathing with confusion, abnormal behavior, seizures or fits, it can progress to coma if not treated early.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by taking history and checking blood levels of Salicylate which is active ingredient present in aspirin.

Treatment: Cardio respiratory support is given with oxygen and fluid replacement to maintain normal breathing and to prevent dehydration. Emergency stomach wash is done to prevent further absorption of drug; another way is to excrete the drug through kidneys by alkilinization of urine.

Dialysis is done in severe cases in which patientís blood is replaced by healthy blood from a donor through machines. Patient is kept in intensive care unit to closely monitor Acid base balance of body and kidney functions.

In this page, we are going to discuss about aspirin and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Asthma :  
Asthma: Asthma is excessive response of lung to different  internal and external stimuli It is triggered by so many stimuli like dust, plant pollens, some drugs,lung infections, cold weather, excessive emotions and stress.Difficulty in breathing, wheezing, cold clammy skin, chest congestion, palpitation are common symptoms sometimes it creates a medical emergency called status asthmaticus comprising of extreme agitation, shortness of breath sometimes complete cessation of breathing.treatment include respiratory support, use of life saving drugs to secure respiration, oxygen and removal of causative  factor like cold or emotion. There are so many good inhalers and puffs available in market to relieve acute attacks. In this page, we are going to discuss about Asthma and types of Asthma, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Atrial Fibrillation:  
Atrial Fibrillation: This is most common type of arrhythmias seen in cardiac emergencies. Arrhythmias are defined as irregular heart beat. Atrial fibrillation starts as a result of fibrosis of heart structures including muscles and valves which inhibits the normal impulses to travel between atria of heart, atria are upper chambers of heart there are two atria right and left, aerial fibrillation can affect either of these two chambers.

Most of the cases are of unknown cause but most common associated factors are mitral stenos is, high blood pressure, diabetes, genetics, cardiomyopathies, sleep apnea, autoimmune disorders, carbon monoxide poisoning, congestive heart failure, rheumatic fever, pericardia, excessive alcohol intake, along with factors previous heart surgery can predispose to atrial fibrillation as well as  lung diseases.

Symptoms of atrial fibrillation are palpitation or rapid irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath on exertion, or on lying down, edema, cyanosis or blue discoloration of body due to inadequate oxygenation, symptoms of underlying disorders can also be present. Best diagnostic approach is ECG, which gives characteristic pattern of heart rhythm; Echocardiography is also very helpful test.

Treatment is done by cardio version; it may be chemical or electrical, electrical cardio version is commonly known as electric shock. Chemical cardio version is done by drugs, which normalize the heart rhythm. Anticoagulant drugs are also given to prevent thromoboembolism.

In this page, we are going to discuss about atrial fibrillation and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Atrial Flutter:  
Atrial Flutter: This is type of arrythmia or irregular heart beat which consists of rapid heart rate usually more then 100 beats/minute. It is usually progressed to atrial fibrillation. atrial flutter is common in people with  high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, diabetes or it may be familial, atrial flutter is dangerous condition and can be present in individuals with normal hearts and with no associated disease.

Sometimes it remains asymptomatic, but precipitated on exercise or exertion, as shortness of breath, chest pain, vertigo and episodes of fainting, some times it can cause heart failure resulting in edema, shortness of breath on exertion and in night; trial flutter can cause sudden cardiac death. Like atrial fibrillation atrial flutter is also seen on and diagnosed by ECG and Ecgocardiograogy.

Treatment of atrial flutter is done by anticoagulant drugs, cardio version; chemical cardio version is not effective, electric shock or electric cariodiversion is best prescribed for this type of cardiac arrhythmias.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Atrial Flutter and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Atrial Techycardia:  
Atrial Techycardia: It is at type of heart arrythmias in which atria continue to generate electrical impulses resulting in fast heart rate greater then 100 beats per minute, exact cause is unknown but is associated with many heart structural abnormalities and physical conditions, atria develop a point which generates impulses irrespective of the main impulse generating from  sinus node present in their walls, it works in isolation and do not disturb very badly the normal electrical activity so it is  not that dangerous as compared to atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation.

Symptoms of atrial tachycardia are somewhat similar to other arrhythmias but they are precipitated by stress, exertion, smoking, alcohol consumption and lack of sleep or patients   are asymptomatic without these risk factors, atrial tachycardia presents with fast heart rate, sweating, weakness, fainting, and shortness of breath during exercise exertion, vertigo or dizziness might be present.

If it persists then it can result in damage to heart muscles and cause congestive heart failure. Ambulatory ECG or exercise tolerance test, confirms diagnosis, which is taken during exercise to detect cardiac activity during exertion, echocardiography is another accurate diagnostic tool. Atrial tachycardia is treated with antiarrhythmic drugs and avoidance of provoking factors by life style changes.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Atrial Techycardia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bacterial Meningitis:  
Bacterial Meningitis: Meninges are mesh of membranes which cover the outer surface of brain and spinal cord, meninges when get infected or inflamed by bacteria  condition is called bacterial or septic meningitis, bacterial meningitis if not controlled is life threatening condition.

It is caused by direct invasion of bacteria by trauma, fractures, insertion of intracerebral brain shunts or drains or may spread from other body parts like  from lung as in tuberculosis or pneumococcal meningitis, from ears and bones like in otitis media or middle ear infection or mastoiditis or mastoid bone infections, bacterial meningitis is also seen with atypical uncommon bacteria in AIDS  and immune deficient states.

In aduls symptoms are sudden onset of fever, severe headache, and neck stiffness or pain, inability to turn neck forward, irritability, vomiting, and increased sleepiness.

In children, it presents a s sleepy child, excessive crying, vomiting and poor feeding. Seizures or fits are common in children but also occur in adults.

Diagnosis is made by lumbar puncture through which fluid is drained from spinal cord though needle and sent for microscopic examination, in bacterial meningitis CSF pressure is increased, white cells counts and proteins are raised with low glucose levels.

Patient is treated by immediate hospitalization and start of intravenous antibiotics, with supportive care with oxygen, mechanical ventilation and fluid and electrolyte replacement.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Bacterial Meningitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Balanitis:  
Balanitis: It is inflammation of glans penis or head of penis; penis is male reproductive organ having cylindrical shaft and hood like head with central hole for secretion of urine and semen.

Glans penis is covered by retractable fold of skin called prepuce, balanitis is associated with inflammation of foreskin also, in this case retraction of foreskin is not possible and if retracted it is very pain full.

Causes: Causes of balanitis are diverse ranging from fungal and bacterial infections, local skin inflammations. Like dermatitis, psoriasis and eczema, allergies to soaps, deodorants, shower gels used in genital area and detergents if not properly washed from undergarments can cause balanitis, uncircumcised males are prone to balanitis.

Because the foreskin which is removed in circumcision can be inflamed by collection of moisturize, germs and seminal secretion under it, resulting in inflammation of whole glans, systemic disorders like diabetes and sexually transmitted disorders can also a risk factor for  banalities, balanitis is common in teen age boys and children, uncircumcised adult males have more chances of developing it.

Balanitis should be screened and treated properly because it can lead to phimosis or un retractable skin or penile cancer if gets chronic.

Symptoms: Symptoms are red painful, itchy penis, with appearance of red spots and sores; there could be pussy foul smelling discharge from urethra.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is reached by history and physical examination, detailed report and culture of discharge and urine, these show either fungus, bacteria or pus cells, in severe cases biopsy tissue is taken from the glans penis for diagnosis.

Treatment: Treatment depends on the cause, local application of anti fungal and antibiotic creams are effective, skin disorders should be treated simultaneously if any, blood sugar should be controlled in diabetics.

Penis and groins should be washed with clean water and antiseptic soaps, especially area under the foreskin should be washed and dried, clean undergarments must be used, painkillers are advised for pain, circumcision is final treatment in uncircumcised males.

In this page, we are going to discuss about balanitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Balkan Nepropathy:  
Balkan Nepropathy: In this page, we are going to discuss about Balkan nepropathy  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Barbiturate Poisoning:  
Barbiturate Poisoning: Barbiturates are sedative hypnotic drugs and cause tolerance and dependence on long term use, itís poisoning or intoxication occurs usually for suicidal attempts, accidental ingestion is also seen in children and elderly. Sedatives are drugs which increase sleep threshold and hypnotics are agents which relax and alter the state of mind.

Symptoms:
At lower doses patient becomes lethargic, confused with agitation and restlessness, complaining of vertigo or dizziness, abnormal eye movements, difficulty in walking and slurred speech and hypothermia. With more severe toxicity patient develops respiratory depression, with difficulty in breathing or complete cessation of respiration, cardio respiratory depression manifests as low blood pressure, increased heart rate, progressing to shock. Patient might develop disturbed thinking, poor judgment and mania. Other outcomes may be renal failure, gastrointestinal disturbances.

Diagnosis: History of recreational drug abuse inquired from family and friends is usually present. There are no specific diagnostic tests except measuring the levels of drug or metabolites in urine.

Treatment:
Treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive, there is no specific antidote found. Cardio respiratory support is given. Drug levels are decreased in body by Stomach wash or by alkalinazation of urine.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Barbiturate Poisoning and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Basic Investigations:  
Basic Investigations: In this page, we are going to discuss about Basic Investigations  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Begtin Enlargement Of The Prostate Gland:  
Begtin Enlargement Of The Prostate Gland: Prostate gland is male reproductive gland present at base of urinary balder, it consists of two lobes or parts, which are present at either side of urethra, and urethra passes in between the two lobes.

Function of prostate is to release secretions during ejaculation or semen ejection during sexual excitement, this fluid is an additive to main testicular secretion which contains sperms; prostatic  fluid contains chemicals and enzymes which increase sperm motility and neutralizes vaginal acidity for spermís survival in vagina of women.

Benign enlargement of prostate occurs with age usually after age 45 or 50; this is due to the hormonal changes, which develop with age. Benign means this enlargement is due to only normal increase in size and number of cells in glands, not the cancerous growth; it only produces symptoms due to pressure on adjoining structures causing obstruction.

Symptoms are initially hesitancy and frequency of urination, urgency, or leaking due to bladder and urethral irritation later as the prostate grows more in size it completely obstructs the urine flow resulting in urinary retention and increased prevalence of urinary tract infections, stones, and kidney damage by back flow of urine. Mild pelvic pain and pain around rectum is also present.

History, rectal examination, and ultrasound and blood markers make diagnosis. One marker, which helps in diagnosis, is prostate specific antigen or PSA but it is non specific because its level is also increased in prostate cancer but measurement of this antigen level is used for screening patients for exclusion of prostate cancer. Treatment can be done by medicines or surgery; mild cases respond to drugs but greatly enlarged gland with obstructive symptoms requires surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Begtin Enlargement Of The Prostate Gland  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Behcetís Disease:  
Behcet's Disease: It is an autoimmune inflammatory vasculitis ( vasculitis is inflammation of vessels)which can involve any organ but most commonly affect mouth, genitals and eyes, typically pain full oral and genital area ulcers and uveitis is present. Aviates is inflammation of uvea which is internal middle layer of eye responsible for vision.

Disease can cause decreased visual acuity and even blindness. Other organs when are affected can cause complicated picture and death as a result of vessel rupture leading to severe internal bleeding or neurological manifestations like dural sinus thrombosis. Symptoms are pain full sores and ulcers in mouth and genitals, red eyes, decreased vision, loss of color vision, abdominal pain, tenderness and blood in stools due to gastrointestinal tract ulcers, skim shows pustular lesions and joint pain is also present. Most serious complication is related to ruptured vessels and brain involvement resulting in seizures, altered consciousness and memory loss.

Diagnosis is totally based on signs and symptoms because there is no diagnostic test available though non specific tests are helpful in diagnosis like inflammatory markers are elevated, eye examination reveals the inflammatory changes in eye. Treatment of this disease is done through high dose steroid and immunosuppressant agents along with symptomatic treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Behcet's Disease and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bellís Facial Palsy:  
Bell's Facial Palsy: Bellís palsy is paralysis or inability to use facial muscles due to unknown cause. It is different from facial palsy, which is a part of stroke and has some cause, Bellís palsy results from inflammation and damage of facial nerve, which controls the sensation, and movement of muscles on one side of face.

Bellís palsy presents, as drooping of angle of mouth on one side, inability to close eyes and mouth and pain in face, patient is also unable to smile, frown and blink eyelids.

Facial palsy is caused by stroke and brain tumors, involves weakness and numbness of one side of body, and associated with high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol levels. Some theories suggest that reactivation of viral infection can cause Bellís palsy, triggered by emotional stress, or environmental stress like cold and trauma, but this is not confirmed and proven and cause is until remained unknown.

Bellís palsy is diagnosed by physical history and examination, and exclusion of causes of other facial palsies. Other type of facial palsy is diagnosed by blood tests, CT and MRI scans. Treatment includes steroids, antiviral drugs, physiotherapy, and surgeries to restore normal facial structures like cosmetic surgery for restoration of smile.

Most of the cases are self-limiting and recovery occurs within months to years .Treatment of facial palsy other then bellís palsy is according to the cause, along with physiotherapy. 

In this page, we are going to discuss about Bell's Facial Palsy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Benzodiazepines:  
Benzodiazepines: Poisoning: Benzodiazepines are group of drugs prescribed by doctors for brain relaxation and sedation, it is a CNS depressant. Due to its sedative and relaxing properties people begin to misuse this drug for recreational and addiction purposes. Its use for suicidal attempts is very common; accidental over dosage is common in patients suffering from decreased sleep and in patients with anxiety. Itís over dose can result in profound illness but toxicity is not that dangerous. It becomes lethal when concomitantly used with other recreational drugs like alcohol, heroin and antidepressants.

Symptoms:
Initially after acute toxicity patient develops increased sleepiness, blurred vision, or double vision, altered speech, with gait disturbances. Sometimes nausea and vomiting is also present. Severe poisoning produce more profound cardiorepiratory complications which include low blood pressure, low basal body temperature, respiratory depression progressing to altered consciousness and coma. Cardiac arrest can lead to sudden death. Often patients develop psychological symptoms like depression, hallucination and aggressive behavior.

Diagnosis: There are no specific tools for diagnosis.  Serum levels of drug can sometimes be measured to determine level of toxicity. History and examination are important for making diagnosis.

Treatment: Basic cardio respiratory support with close monitoring is required. Oxygen supplementation, IV fluid replacement is beneficial, sometimes patient require airway intubation with artificial ventilation. There is no specific antidote available but most patient respond with supportive care and close observation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about benzodiazepines and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Beri Beri:  
Beriberi: This disease occurs due to deficiency of vitamin B1 also called thiamine. 

Types Of Beriberi
Beriberi is of two types
1.Dry beriberi
2. Wet beriberi 

1. Dry Beriberi
Dry Beriberi also called wernicke korsak off syndrome usually affects central nervous system and mostly occurs in alcoholics. Alcoholic who are taking large amount of alcohol are unable to absorb thiamine from their diet  and acquire this disorder. Symptoms include mental confusion difficulty in  walking, loss of sensation in hands and  feet, loss of muscle function resulting in paralysis of lower limbs, abnormal eye movements, vomiting, tingling in ears and loss of memory, if treated early these changes are reversible but if diagnosis and treatment are late permanent neurological damage occurs with permanent loss of  memory

2.Wet Beriberi
Wet beri beri affects cardiovascular system especially heart resulting in sleep apnea, edema of lower limbs, shortness of breath on exertion and increased heart rate,cardiac changes are also reversible if detected earlier. Complications include coma, congestive heart failure, psychosis and loss of memory.

People with genetic errors of metabolism also suffer from diseases due to malabsorption of thiamine; infants can also acquire diseases if motherís breast feed is deficient in thymine.

Diagnosis is made by checking thiamine levels in blood and excretion of its metabolites in urine samples, clinical history and examinations. Treatment is done by giving thymine supplements and diets rich in thymine and cutting off alcohol in case of alcoholics. In this page, we are going to discuss about beri beri and types of beriberi symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Biliary Colic:  
Biliary Colic: In this page, we are going to discuss about Biliary Colic and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Biliary Dyskinesia:  
Biliary Dyskinesia: It refers to a condition in which gall bladder can not contract properly and is not emptied completely in time due to dysfunction of sphincter of oddi.

Sphincter of oddi is group of muscles, which encircle the common bile duct and its relaxation result in emptying pf gall bladder, and resulting flow of bile from gall bladder to duodenum.

Causes: chronic cholecystitis, chronic pancreatitis, or carcinoma gall bladder and gallstones are usually present. Stress is known to be a major factor for dysfunction as well as fatty foods and other digestive disorders. In this condition gall bladder cannot perceive the hormone dependent signal of its emptying by brain.  Usually old women who are overweight are susceptible to biliary dyskinesia.

Symptoms: Patient has episodic colicky pain in right upper side of abdomen; usually stress and fatty foods triggers the pain, sometimes-mild discomfort is present.

Diagnosis: Thorough history and CT and MRI scans are helpful in diagnosis

Treatment: Treatment is done by surgical removal of gall bladder.

In this page, we are going to discuss about biliary dyskinesia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bilious Diarrhoea:  
Bilious Diarrhoea: In this page, we are going to discuss about Bilious Diarrhoea  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bilious Headache:  
Bilious Headache: This type of headache is caused by indigestion, overeating, or liver disorders. Term bilious is derived from the secretion of bile which is green colored fluid secreted by liver to digest fats. Patient has symptoms of indigestion along with headship, headache is dull throbbing in type or felt as heaviness in head and neck, associated with vomiting, nausea, constipation, regurgitation of bile from mouth and irritability.

Patient could have malabsorption syndrome like failure to digest spicy meaty food, greasy stool, and acidity and stomach ulcers. Bilious headaches are diagnosed by history; there is no specific tool for diagnosis.

Diagnosis of digestive disorders is necessary to treat it, bilious headache can be controlled by pain killers and by adopting healthy eating ways, like eating small meals frequently, diets rich in fiber, fruits and vegetables, mild exercise like walking for fifteen minutes after meals especially after dinner, and drinking a lot of water. Patientís counseling is necessary about the link between headache and eating habits.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Bilious Headache and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Billiary Colic:  
Billiary Colic: It is spasmodic episodic or constant dull   pain produced due to gall bladder or its ductís inflammation or presence of stones in them. Gallstones and inflammation are called choleliithiasis and cholecystitis respectively.

It is more common in women then men .this is one if the most common causes of abdominal surgery.

Causes: Gallstones are developed due to accumulation of cholesterol and bile salts in gall bladder. It can be produced secondary to liver disorders like jaundice, hemolytic anemia; it can also occur secondary to obstruction bile flow. Exact etiology is unknown but certain conditions are associated with increased risk like fatty foods, obesity, pregnancy, liver disorders, diabetes etc.

Symptoms: Patient develops dull constant or severe spasmodic pain in upper right part of abdomen with accompanying nausea and vomiting, sometimes fever, jaundice, lethargy, loss of appetite, epigastria burning, and weight loss is present.

Diagnosis: It is based on history and examination, on examination abdomen is very pain full to touch on palpation in right upper segment, blood test reveals  increased white cell, ultrasound abdomen is the key tool for making final examination.

Treatment: Some patients respond to conservative treatment like low fat diet, antibiotics, and intravenous fluid therapy but surgery is required for severe vomiting, abdominal pain or other symptoms of obstruction and if there is danger of rupture of gall bladder.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Billiary Colic and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bladder:  
Bladder: In this page, we are going to discuss about Bladder and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Blood:  
Blood: In this page, we are going to discuss about blood and types of blood, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bowens Disease:  
Bowens Disease: Bowen disease is a type of skin cancer which is restricted or localized to epidermis which is upper most layer of skin, it is  non invasive  and  does not progress to dermis or deeper layer of skin.

Pathologically, it is a squalor cell carcinoma and more common in old people and women. It usually develops after 50ís or 60ís and rare in young people.

Causes: Chronic sun exposure and chronic skin inflammation is major causer of this cancer. Immune compromised people like AIDS and transplant patients, and those on chemotherapy are at risk, Human Papilloma Virus is also associated with development of this skin cancer. Arsenic is a toxin which is found in soil and water contaminated with   industrial wastes, can be a cause of Bowen disease.

Symptoms:
It starts as red flat crusty or scaly plaque on skin; it is not raised above the skin surface and gradually increases in size it can occur at any part of body including genitals but usually occurs on sun-exposed areas of skin.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by skin biopsy.

Treatment: Treatment is done by freezing or cryosurgery, lasers and with local chemotherapy in forms of creams or gels. Fortunately, it is benign cancer and does not spread to other parts, majority of patients respond to local treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Bowens Disease and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Brain:  
Brain: Human brain is soft structure enclosed in bony casing called skull. Brain is very delicate organ and controls whole body function through nerves.

Brain is amazing creation of god. Human brain is divided into many parts, basically it is divided into two halves by a burrow or sulcus called cerebral hemispheres, cerebral hemispheres control the sensory functions like hearing, vision, smell, taste, motor activity and perform higher mental functions like memory, intellect, judgment and coordinates body functions, bellow cerebrum these is cone like part called brain stem where all sensitive functions are regulated like respiration, heart activity and balance.

Brain stem is divided into pons, medulla and cerebellum; cerebellum is also connected through nerves to internal ears and optic nerve, which is responsible for vision. Bellow brainstem medulla is continued with spinal cord, brain controls function by nerves, which passes through spinal cord, nerves emerge from brain cells called neurons, neurons, receives stimuli from body organs, process them and perform specific function by sending signals to that specific organ. Brain and spinal cord is covered outside by membrane called meninges. 

Blood vessels supply oxygen and nutrients to brain tissue. Fluid from brain is drained by spaces and this drained fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid.  
     
Brain like all organs is prone to infections, inflammations, blood vessel thickening, and blockage of drainage, tumors and cancers. Most common brain infections are meningitis or inflammation of brain membranes and encephalitis or inflammation of brain cells; these can be bacterial, viral or fugal. Brain infections are very dangerous and difficult to treat, if blood vessels of brain are thickened or blocked by clots or tumors it can result in brain hemorrhage, brain ischemia or infarction leading to oxygen deprivation and brain cell death.

Hemorrhage occurs due to rupture of blood vessels and result in compression of brain, stroke and paralysis; rupture can be due to increased blood pressure. Brain infarction is due to clots, which distort blood flow, and cause death of blood cells, tumors or cancers can result in fits or seizures and paralysis, vision and hearing problems. Collection of fluid or block in drainage space results in hydrocephalus; it causes memory loss, paralysis, urinary and fecal incontinence.

Some diseases of brain are associated with aging, common are Parkinsonism, Alzheimer disease, these diseases result in decreased memory and intellect and   problems in movements. Risk factors for brain disease are high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, injury, accidents or fracture to skull bones.

Brain disease can be prevented by  various measure like control of blood pressure, sugar levels and cholesterol, mild exercise and proper diet containing omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and zinc and vitamin  E, brain injuries and accidents are prevented by wearing helmets during bike ride, tying safety belts while driving a car. Reducing stress and doing yoga and aerobic exercises are good ways to delay age related disorders.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Brain and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Brain Abcess:  
Brain Abcess: Abscess is collection of pus, consisting of dead bacteria, tissues, and neutrophils, which are immune; cells usually in large area, brain abscess results from complication of infection arising in any area of brain, which was inadequately treated, brain abscess has very dangerous effects and should be diagnoses and treated as early as possible.

Bacteria either enter brain via blood  from some other site in body like infection of ears, sinuses, or other head and neck regions, it may also seen associated with congenital heart disease, or by injury or penetrating  trauma to skull or brain like compound fractures, piercing bone fragments inside brain or gun shot injuries. Tuberculosis is major cause of brain abscess.

Abscess may be cause by fungi and parasites in case of immune compromised people. 

Symptoms are fever, headache, malaise, seizures or fits, slurred speech, paralysis and numbness in one side of body, confusion, unconsciousness and coma. increased interracial pressure developed due to compression by abscess.

In this case  there is loss of lower limb movement, loss of control over urination and passing stool, best diagnostic tool for detecting brain abscess is CT and MRI scans, lumbar puncture is not indicated because there is risk of hernia ion of brain through spinal cord. Brain abscess is treated by giving intravenous antibiotics and drainage of abscess by surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Brain Abcess and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bronchoscopy:  
Bronchoscopy: An instrument called bronchoscope through a medical procedure inspects Bronchi internally.

Bronchi are two large tubes also called airways, which connect trachea or wind pipe to lungs, these are made up of rings of cartilage strengthened by smooth muscles, mucous membranes, which secretes mucous to humidify air, cover bronchi internally.

Bronchi are prone to development of inflammation, infection, allergic reactions, polyps and tumors. To visualize the disorders bronchoscopy is done, bronchoscopy is of both diagnostic and therapeutic value.

Bronchoscopy is also used to treat many diseases like removal of tumors and cancers, bronchoscopy is done to take biopsy specimen from deeper parts of tissues, most bronchoscopes are made of flexible material, are smaller in size and are less traumatic to patient; they can bend or flex to pass into more congested areas of airways, some bronchoscopes are rigid made up of metal, these bronchoscopes are large and used to remove foreign bodies from airways.

Bronchoscopes are attached with lights and digital cameras connected to outside computers to visualize lung interior during operations and can take pictures of diseased parts for study and research purposes, usually bronchoscopy is safe procedure but some risks are associated like accidental trauma and bleeding by rigid bronchoscopes, laryngospasm can occur even due to most safe flexible bronchoscopes.

Laryngospasm is muscular contraction of larynx or voice box due to physical or chemical stimulus resulting in narrowing of respiratory passages and difficulty in breathing) other complications are leakage of air in chest cavity and resulting compression of chest and voice changes after damage to vocal cords. With all safety measures and latest medical techniques, bronchoscope is useful and safe procedure to diagnose and treat many airway diseases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Bronchoscopy and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Bulimia Nervosa:  
Bulimia Nervosa: Bulimia nervosa is eating disorder in which person eats large amount of food and then want to get rid of that by inducing vomiting or diarrhea by different measures.

It is psychological disorder and other psychiatric ailments are present like delusions (Delusions are abnormal beliefs or thoughts, which are not accepted by others) and depression. Bulimia nervosa patients have strong family history of disease and more common in women.

It is less dangerous then anorexia nervosa.

Symptoms: Usually patients are of normal weight   but dehydrated  and have different have malnutrition , mouth injuries are there because of attempts to vomit out the food,  patients are anxious nervous and depressed, constipation is also present, patient  speaks blurred words , physical signs of nutritional deficiencies are present like muscle weakness, tooth decay, mouth  ulcers and fissures.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis needs psychological and family history to be explored; usually history of some psychological disorder in family is present. Examination reveals anemia, enlarged liver, swollen lymph glands, and fluctuations in mood, blurred speech and normal or over weight.

Treatment: Treatment is done by giving anti depressants and psychotherapy; nutritional supplements are required to correct nutritional deficiencies.

In this page, we are going to discuss about bulimia nervosa and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Camphor Poisoning:  
Camphor Poisoning: Camphor is present in commercial products like Vicks, topical or local pain killer and in some insect repellents. Its accidental poisoning is common through skin, and can also be ingested mistakenly by children especially. When ingested it is highly toxic. Camphor has menthol like properties and has cooling effect on skin.

Symptoms: Patient develops burning on skin and if ingested burning in mouth and throat, nausea, vomiting abdominal pain, seizures or fits, rigid muscles and muscle fasciculation or twitching. Slow breathing, rapid pulse, restlessness are also present, it cam progresses neurological manifestations which include confusion, unusual behavior and lack of consciousness.

Diagnosis: Characteristic odor of drug is present which is diagnostic, thorough history and examination helps in diagnosis, neurological symptoms re present especially seizures in children.

Treatment: Immediately wash the area which has been exposed to drug and patient should immediately be transferred to hospital. If patient is not unconscious then activated charcoal may be used to prevent the absorption from gut, basic cardio respiratory support and control of seizures should be done with oxygen and muscle relaxants.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Camphor Poisoning and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cancer:  
Cancer: Cancer is defined as uncontrolled growth of normal cells or excessive growth of abnormal cells, cancers arise from genetic or acquired mutations, mutations are abnormal changes in normal genes, chronic tissue inflammation, irritation, can induce the formation of cancer cells, once cancer cells are formed their growth and spread cannot be stopped.

Risk factors for cancer are genetic or inheritance, environmental toxins, artificial food preservatives and chemicals, pesticides spray of crops, contamination of water, soil and food resources by natural carcinogenic substances, chronic tissue injury or irritation, autoimmune disorders and immune compromised states. Smoking, tobacco is common risk factors for lung cancers.

Decreased immunity as seen in AIDS patients, is major cause of cancers because in these patients cells which fight against the cancer cells are decreased or absent in numbers; cancer also develops as a result of unopposed formation of free radicals in body which are destroyed by antioxidants normally, decreased intake of fresh fruits and vegetable sand organic natural foods can predispose an individual to cancer.

Most cancers are diagnosed at  advanced  stages due to lack of awareness and slow growth of cancers, there are many laboratory investigations which are invented after series of researches conducted on cancers, early diagnosis can reduce the  death rates from cancers. There is no cure for it except for dangerous cytotoxic drugs, which have numerous side effects, so it is better to prevent the risk factors, which cause cancers.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cancer  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cancer Of Larynx:  
Cancer Of  Larynx:: The incidence of laryngeal cancers are increasing due to many factors like smoking sniffing tobacco in other forms excess alcohol consumption and  pollutants in foods , drinks , and in environment.

Larynx or voice box is situated at front of neck above the trachea which large respiratory passage connecting to lungs by smaller passages is called bronchi. Larynx performs three important functions; breathing, Swallowing and prevents entry of food in respiratory passages and voice production. Laryngeal cancers can be benign or non-progressive.

Examples of benign cancers are papillomas and nodules caused by viruses. Malignant laryngeal cancers are progressive and spread to other parts of body like bones and lungs via lymph vessels or blood vessels.

Symptoms: hoarseness of voice usually of longer duration is hall mark, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat, a visible lump in front of neck  breathing problem,  ear ache and  persistent cough , generalized symptoms like weight loss ,decreased appetite,  weakness, low grade fever are also present.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by throat examination by an instrument called laryngoscope, a flexible endoscope which is entered inside the throat by doctor for deep evaluation of larynx  but this is non specific  and tissue biopsy should be done to confirm the diagnosis, X-ray neck and chest, CT scan and  MRI scan are mandatory  for final diagnosis and to know the extent, size and stage of cancer.

Treatment:  Treatment depends on size extent and stage of tumor, like other cancer for localized lesions radiotherapy and surgical removal is safe like in case of nodules or papillomas. In case of malignant tumors invading other tissues, combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is used. Sometimes complete larynx is removed because of extensive damage and patient has loss of voice, in this case, laryngeal reconstructive surgery is needed to restore the function

In this page, we are going to discuss about cancer of  larynx and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cancer of Cervix:  
Cancer of Cervix: Cervix is a tube like cavity with hollow lumen, it connect vagina to uterus and allow passage of menstrual blood vaginal secretions and transfer of sperms to uterus, cancers of cervix are common.

Risk factors for cervical cancer are infection with human paplilloma virus producing warts in genital regions, it is form of  sexually transmitted disease, multiple sex partners, smoking, increased age and family history. symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding often heavy bleeding , inter menstrual bleeding, or passage of blood clots, pain and discomfort in lower abdomen, pain during intercourse, dirty foul smelling discharge, weight loss, decreased appetite.

Bone pain, shortness of breath, enlargement of lymph glands, swelling appears due to spread to other organs. Constipation or urinary frequency is due to pressure on surrounding structures.

Most widely used screening and diagnostic test for cervical cancer is pap smear in which small amount of cervical scrapping is taken through vagina and sent for laboratory examination, this test detects the early stages of cancer.

Biopsy, ultrasound, tumor markers, CT and MRI scans are effective ways to detect cancer. Treatment depends on stage of cancer, if cancer is confined to cervix it is removed by surgery and if spread in distant areas then radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used.

In this page, we are going to discuss about cancer of cervix and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Cancer Of The Endometurm:  
Cancer Of The Endometurm: CA endometrium is cancer of endometrial lining of uterus, endometrium is the inner most layer of uterus, uterus is main reproductive organ of female genital tract, baby redevelop in this pouch like cavity during pregnancy, endometrial cancer may be simple benign tumor or it can be malignant or rapidly invasive and spread to surrounding and distant organs like ovaries, tubes, lymph nodes, lungs, liver and bones. Risk factors for its development are family history, obesity or increased weight, infertility, early age of menarche and late menopause.

Symptoms are bleeding and pain, Weight loss, decreased appetite enlargement of lymph glands in groins, presence of mass or lump in lower abdomen, sometimes at diagnosis cancer  has already spread to other organs and present as shortness of breath, swelling of body and bone pain.

Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, CT and MRI scans, blood tests, and detection of tumor markers in blood (tumor markers are antigens which are raised in specific cancers) CA 125 is tumor marker which is raised in endometrial cancer, it is also raised in other cancers and is not specific.

Specific test for diagnosis is D&C in which tissue piece is taken by scratching lining of uterus by instrument under anesthesia and sent for biopsy. Treatment options depend on stage and size of tumor. Localized tumors are excised by surgery, spread to other organs require radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

In this page, we are going to discuss about cancer of the endometurm and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cancer Of Urinary Bladder:  
Cancer Of Urinary Bladder: In this page, we are going to discuss about Cancer Of Urinary Bladder and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Canicola Fever:  
Canicola Fever: It is also called leptospirosis. It is diseases caused due to bacterium leptospira. This bacterium transmits from urine of infected animals like rats, dogs, cattle and some marine animals to humans. 

Human acquires infection by using contaminated water, food, and infection can be transferred by open unhealed skin wounds.

People who are veterinary workers, farmers, slaughterhouse workers, waste disposal facility workers are at risk of getting infection.

Symptoms: Patient initially develops flu like symptoms like fever; chills, malaise and muscular pain, then patient remain asymptomatic for few weeks and then develop diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, skin rash, red eyes and abdominal pain. If not treated early it can lead to severe complications like renal failure, and cardiovascular problems.

Diagnosis: It is done by blood and ELISA and PCR test can make CSF culture, diagnosis that is more accurate, these are serological tests which detect presence of antibodies against leptospira in blood. Other tests like LFTs and renal function tests are helpful in detection of complications.

Treatment: Antibiotics and supportive treatment to avoid complications do Treatment. High-risk people should receive vaccination against the infection.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Canicola Fever and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cannobis:  
Cannobis: Cannabis also called maurijauna is recreational and psychoactive drug used to relive stress and alter mood  Its use is common in males and young people who engage I group activities and develop addiction .It is derived from cannabis plant and either smoked, snuffed or  eaten  in solid form, it is also called Hashish  in Urdu.

People who have bad experiences of life usually use it to forget the past and boys specially begin to use it in gangs and groups to show power and wellbeing. Poisoning is common in abusers who start taking as recreational drug and become dependent on drug and take more amounts to satisfy themselves resulting in either acute or chronic poisoning.

Symptoms:
Patients get increased heart rate, increased blood pressure rapid breathing, tremors, fear or panic attacks, nausea , vomiting confusion, drowsiness, decreased coordination in movement, patient might be euphoric with excessive laughter, abnormal behavior , slurred speech and  hallucinations. Hallucinations are abnormal perceptions without any real or physical existence.

Diagnosis: History and examination counts a lot. Family history is important but family is usually not available because these are usually homeless alone people living on roads. Diagnosis is made by checking urinary levels of active compounds. Blood levels are also done.

Treatment: Basic cardio respiratory support is given with symptomatic treatment and close monitoring of neurological functions. Patient should be placed in isolated place with proper sedation. Psychological and behavioral therapy is very important in treatment and follow-up of these patients.

In this page, we are going to discuss about cannobis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carbohydrates:  
Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are form of macronutrients present in food and classified into simple and complex types, simple sugars are found in honey, sugar cane, and fruits, complex sugars are either in form of starch present in vegetables like potatoes and corn, or found in milk, cereals, grains and beans.

Carbohydrates are high energy nutrients, sugars present in carbohydrates burn to release immediate ebenrgy, carbohydrates are especially needed by growing children and physically active individuals like athletes and players due to their increased activity and high energy demand.

Persons who have sedentary life styles or who are not active, should take carbohydrates in minimal quantity in their diets because sugers in these people is not metabolized  and  converted to fats, in this way they get overweight.

Carbohydrates are also harmful for the diabetics because in these patients; carbohydrates raise blood sugar levels and their symptoms aggravate like polyuria or urinary frequency and polydispsia or increased thirst.

Carbohydrates are essential component of diet and must be taken in balanced amounts to gain energy.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Carbohydrates  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carbon Monoxide:  
Carbon Monoxide: In this page, we are going to discuss about Carbon Monoxide and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning:  
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: CO is poisonous gas and harmful for body. It converts normal hemoglobin into carboxyhemoglobin which can not carry oxygen to body tissues resulting in cell injury and death. Its poisoning results accidentally from use of heaters or stoves in semi closed and closed rooms in cold weather, CO is also present in vehicle fumes and accidental inhalation can be possible in closed garages.

CO is also present in fumes emitting from factories and underground sewage tunnels. People working in these environments can be accidentally poisoned. CO poisoning may be acute or chronic in large congested polluted cities with emissions of fumes from industrial areas.

Symptoms: Mild and chronic poisoning results in headaches, confused state of mind. Lethargy, poor concentration and cognitive functions, impaired memory .acute poisoning can be lethal and cause death in few minute to hours due to tissue oxygen deprivation, it starts from headache, confusion progressing to convulsions, coma and death.

Diagnosis: Poisoning can be diagnosed by measuring levels of carboxyhemoglobin in blood. History and examination also helps in making diagnosis.

Treatment: Patient should be taken away from the site of emission. Cardio respiratory support is given with 100% hyperbaric oxygen. Increased dose of oxygen concentration rapidly replaces CO from hemoglobin and life saving measure in CO poisoning. Poisoning can be prevented by checking stoves and heaters regularly for proper functioning and try to avoid their use in closed locations. Industrial employees and sewage workers should be given awareness classes to avoid exposure and first aid measures in case of any accident.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carbuncle:  
Carbuncle: Carbuncle is red swollen tender skin lump, which occurs due to infection of many hair follicles by the organism called staphylococcus aurous. It most commonly occurs in regions of back, neck, groins, buttocks and armpits. Carbuncle can spread from one person to another and to other areas of body by direct contact and by the use of infected material like personal clothing, towels, and bed sheets.

Different condition can predispose a person to its development like complicated boil or frucnulosis, old age, diabetes, skin abrasions, moisture, liver or kidney disease or immune deficiency states.

Symptoms:
There is lump which is very painful, red, filled with fluid or pus, sometimes with central opening, surrounding skin get inflamed, there are systemic symptoms like fever, malaise and headrace, it can involve the nerves if situated deeply or extensive.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by examination, history   and culture of fluid or pus, which shows the presence of organism.

Treatment: Hot fomentation, antibiotic ointments, and application of sterile bandages are effective to drain the pus spontaneously; some times carbuncle has to be drained surgically if larger in size, pain killers are advised along with vitamin C supplements and diet to promote healing.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Carbuncle  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carcinoma Of The Oesophagus:  
Carcinoma Of The Oesophagus: Esophagus is muscular tube, which extends from mouth to stomach and it functions to propel food towards stomach. At the junction between esophagus and stomach, there is one sphincter or valve, which prevents backflow of stomach contents and acid into esophagus.

Cancer of esophagus is more common in males and very discomforting and dangerous. Risk factors for esophageal cancer are smoking, tobacco chewing, alcohol, hot food or beverages, gastroespohageal reflux disease and chronic exposure to solvents or radiation.

Some disease and cancers spreading from other organs also present as esophageal cancer. Symptoms are progressive difficulty in swallowing first for liquids and then for solids, pain during swallowing, weight loss, persistent cough and hoarseness of voice, decreased appetite, pain and burning in chest is confused with cardiac pain.

Diagnosis can be made by endoscopy, barium swallow, CT and MRI scans. Barium is a dye which is given to be ingested by patient and then x ray is taken, any narrowing of esophageal lumen due to tumor or mass can be detected, endoscopy is a procedure in which a flexible tube with camera is inserted within a body cavity to directly visualize internal anatomy, esophageal biopsy tissue is often taken during endoscopy.

Treatment is done by surgical excision of tumor, if localized and radiotherapy and chemotherapy if tumor spreads to deeper layers and to other organs, some times whole esophagus has to be excised in order to save life and an artificial esophagus is created either prosthetic or by taking tissue graft from other part of intestine.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Carcinoma Of The Oesophagus and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carcinoma Stomach:  
Carcinoma Stomach: Cancers of stomach are rare but increasing in number due to modern life styles and bad eating habits to great extent. Cancer usually emerges from inner lining of stomach. Stomach cancers are usually linked to chronic inflammation of stomach mucosa by variety of factors.

Among them are; chronic infection with  bacterium H. pylori, chronic ulceration of stomach secondary to different causes, smoking, over eating, use of spicy non fibrous fried foods, artificial  preserved foods, pernicious anemia which is an autoimmune disorder can also be cause of stomach cancer, in many cases family history of cancer  in some close relative is also  present.

Symptoms: Patient has mild upper abdominal and epigastric pain, nausea vomiting, sometimes blood is present in vomits, lack of appetite, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, enlarged spleen and liver are present, sometimes cancer spreads to other areas and represent with symptoms related to involved organ like lung edema and shortness of breath.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually made by endoscopy of stomach progressing to biopsy in which small piece of mucosa is taken from stomach and evaluated in laboratory for cancerous cells.

CT and MRI scans are also help full for detecting enlarged lymph nodes and for metastasis. Treatment: Treatment is with chemotherapy and radiotherapy as with other cancers. Sometimes surgery is needed to remove a part or whole of the stomach to avoid spread of cancer to other organs but prognosis is very bad and most of the people die within years of diagnosis.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Carcinoma Stomach  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cardiac Arrest:  
Cardiac Arrest: Sudden cessation of heart function resulting in stoppage of blood supply to body is called cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest either results from cardiac causes or non cardiac causes.

Cardiac causes are myocardial infarction or heart attack, congestive heart failure, hypertension, cardiomyopathy, and myocarditis. Non cardiac causes include hypovolumia from severe bleeding or from trauma or injury or shock, increased or decreased potassium levels, increased or decreased sugar levels, toxins and poisonous gases inhalation, cardiac temponade.

Patients are usually carried in casualties in unconscious sates and with no respiration; pulse and blood pressure are not present; body is cool and pale. Cardiac arrest is medical emergency and should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible because few minutes delay result in sudden death.

Basic life support with cardiac massage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mouth to mouth breathing and oxygen supplementation should be started at first site, electrical defibrillation and cardio version is done, circulatory support should be given by inserting two large bore cannulae, fluid or fresh blood should be started to maintain circulation. After stabilization investigation should be sent to identify the cause.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cardiac Arrest and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cardiac Disorders:  
Cardiac Disorder: In this page, we are going to discuss about Cardiac Disorders and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cardiac Failure:  
Cardiac Failure: Also called heart failure; it is a condition in which heart is unable to pump enough blood to tissues and organs resulting in deprivation of oxygen and cell death.

Heart failure has many causes and types. Heart failure may be right sided or left sided. Symptoms are different in two different types. Causes of heart failure ate coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, heart valve disease, heart arrhythmias, myocarditis, anemia, hyperthyroidism, cardiomayopathies, and autoimmune disorders.

Some drugs can also cause heart failure when taken in excessive amounts or on prolonged use, alcohol, cocaine, and smoking are also associated with number of cases. Symptoms of left heart failure are  difficulty in breathing on exertion, in later stages  on rest also especially in lying down position, weakness, vertigo and chest wheezing., right sided heart failure results in swelling of body, enlargement of liver and spleen and complication of liver congestion like clotting factor abnormalities and jaundice.

Variety of modern diagnostic techniques are available through which early stages can be detected like ECG, Echocardiography, cardiac markers and   angiography. Treatment is done by drugs to lower the fluid overload and to enhance the pumping activity of heart.

Treatment depends upon cause, like in autoimmune disorders  immunosuppressive are given, amentia is treated by iron supplements and blood transplantation, hormonal treatment is given for hyperthyroidism, myocarditis responds well  to antibiotics; in decompensated cases angioplasty, cardiac bypass surgery and heart transplantation are final options to save the life of patient, life style modification are of key value, regular exercise, low fat and salt diet are necessary to prevent all the causative factors.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cardiac Failure  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cardiogenic Shock:  
Cardiogenic Shock: In this page, we are going to discuss about Cardiogenic Shock and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cardiomyopathy:  
Cardiomyopathy: Simply it is defined as disease involving cardiac smooth muscles due to  intrinsic and extrinsic causes, heart  muscles are type of smooth muscles different from  our external muscles; they contract and push blood to arteries to be supplied to body, heart muscle are most commonly damaged by coronary heart disease in which blood supply is interrupted resulting in muscle ischemia and cell death called infarction, the area of muscle which has been infracted or necrosed can not contract.

If defect is localized then arrhythmia or irregular heart beat develops and if large areas of muscles are affected then heart failure ensues.

Aside from this; some genetic causes contribute to intrinsic cardiomyopathy. Secondary or extrinsic causes are hypertension, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, metabolic disorders like hemochromatosis or accumulation of iron in muscles, alcohol and some drugs and obesity. Symptoms are either absent or mild or present as chest pain, palpitation and if heart failure develops then shortness of breath and edema is present. Accurate method to diagnose it is muscle biopsy but it is a risky procedure to be done on routine basis, diagnostic clues can find out by ECG and Echocardiography.

Treatment depends on cause, along with controlling compilations like arrhythmias and heart failure.  Mild cases are treated with drugs, electrical defibrillation ad cardio version techniques are used for more severe cases, and heart transplantation is final option in unresponsive cases. In this page, we are going to discuss about Cardiomyopathy  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:  
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: This syndrome comprises of numbness or loss of sensation or pricking and needle sensation associated with pain in distribution of median nerve of hand. Abnormal sensation alike burning is also some time present, there is weakness of hand and arm and weak grip to hold objects.

Muscles can atrophy in long-term cases. Median nerve passes through a tunnel called carpel tunnel present at wrist and supplies skin and muscles of half side of hand including thumb, index and middle finger.

This tunnel is made up of elastic ligament or covering and provides support to underlying structure like blood vessels and nerves which are running under it.

Exact cause is unknown but swelling of structures under ligament is associated with compression of nerve, carpel tunnel syndrome is associated with some diseases also like diabetes, hypothyroidism, arthritis, tumors like gangioma or lipoma of hands etc. Certain postures and movements are also associated with this syndrome but association is not confirmed like typing and continuous writing predispose to disorder, pregnancy also carry some risk to this syndrome. Women are more prone to this disorder.

Diagnosis is mainly clinical with involvement of medial side of hands thumb, index and middle finger, some times electromyography and verve conduction velocities are done to make diagnosis.

Treatment is rest to affected hand, along with steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs, local steroid injections are helpful, in severe cases surgery is done to relief compression.In this page, we are going to discuss about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Castor Oil:  
Castor Oil: Castor oil is obtained from castor oil plant; it is used as lubricant and laxative. In normal doses, it relieves constipation and acts as an irritant to intestines, in some areas it has been used to stimulate abortion by initiating uterine contractions.

In normal amounts, it is not harmful and safe for human consumption, caster oil plant residue contain a lethal substance called ricin, which is very toxic and lethal causing death within minutes to hours, but castor oil available in markets is safe and does not contain such residue.

Symptoms: When taken in large amounts it causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and severe diarrhea leading to dehydration, low blood pressure, collapse and shock. It can also cause burning throat, difficulty in breathing, chest pain and tightness, local skin reactions like rashes and redness can also develop. If not decontaminated;   toxicity can progress central nervous system causing dizziness confusion and hallucination but it is very rare.

Diagnosis:  Diagnosis is made by history and examination, thee is no specific tool for diagnosis.

Treatment: Stomach wash should immediately be done to remove the poison, however it is difficult to do because castor oil is very viscous and thick, there is no antidote available. Supportive treatment is required with fluid and electrolyte replacement. Castor oil toxicity is not so dangerous and outcome is good.

In this page, we are going to discuss about castor oil and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Catalepsy:  
Catalepsy: It is a state of absent responsiveness and body stiffness, usually of whole body or parts of body with intact heart function and respiration. Catalepsy is a response to some extreme emotional shock or it is a part of some brain diseases like epilepsy, Parkinsonism and schizophrenia. It can also result after drug withdrawal like cocaine, or side effects of some drugs like anti psychotic drugs.

Symptoms of catalepsy are sudden rigidity of muscles, ad abnormal postures like bending of neck and extension or flexion of limbs, patients is unable to do voluntary function like movements, blinking eyes, and can not speak, with constant  forward gaze, patient do not respond to visual and auditory stimuli like if you call him or her, no response pacers, exact mechanism is unknown but many health specialists postulated that  it is  due to the  abnormal balance of neurotransmitter release from brain.

Catalepsy may persist for hours days, weeks, or even months; there is no cure for it but different measures are adopted like talking about the same event which caused the state of catalepsy in front of patient, like if it is a reaction of death of some beloved, try to be recalled by patient that its over or gone, or patients may be given some strong stimulus like make him shake or let him or her cry.

Great care should be taken if it is prolonged; like proper fluid and diet intake in sitting position to avoid aspiration of gastric contents, body care and change of posture. Usually this state resolves spontaneously after some time.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Catalepsy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cellulitis:  
Cellulitis: Cellulitis is a condition in which connective tissue under the skin get inflamed and infected by bacteria which are present on superficial skin layers and get access to deeper layers by cuts, surgical wounds, insectís bites and stings, boils, burns and abrasions.

Connective tissue is mesh of fiber and protein, which holds tightly different tissues together. It is present in skin beneath superficial layers and contains blood vessels and nerves. Risk factors for development of cellulitis are immune deficiency states, poor circulatory states like diabetes, varicose or dilated veins, deep vein thrombosis, and pregnancy.

Most common sites for development of cellulitis are legs and face but any area can be affected.

Symptoms:  There is red-hot area on skin, which is painful; the affected area may be small or extensive in size. Skin break may be visible or unseen.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on history and examination. Sometimes invasive techniques are used like ultrasound and Doppler to see venous insufficiency; blood tests are useful to identify the cause like high blood sugar levels in diabetes.

Treatment: Antibiotics are given along with painkillers to relieve the Pain, sometimes hot or cold fomentation is helpful to relieve discomfort. Elevation and rest of affected part especially if occurs in legs is comforting.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cellulitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cerebellar Infarction:  
Cerebellar Infarction: Cerebellar infarction is a form of stoke which involves brain stem and cerebellum which are parts of brain where respiration, heart rate and body balance is regulated, infarction is an area of dead tissues due to interruption of blood supply and oxygen.

Brain requires continuous supply of oxygen and glucose for continuation of its function and any blockage in brain vessels by atherosclerosis blood clots or structural malformations can cause infarction. Risk factor for brain infarction are blood clotting disorders, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes, obesity, age and spread of moving thrombi called emboli from other organs or sites.

Symptoms of cerebella infarction are loss of balance and movement of limbs, vomiting, vertigo, abnormal movements of eyes, disturbed balance like inability to stand or walk with closed eyes and without support, inability to walking in straight line, abnormal walk or gait, blurred vision and tingling in ears can be present.

Due to compression of respiratory center in brain stem, there could be breathing difficulty, or disturbances in heart rate. CT makes diagnosis and MRI scans. Treatment is done by anti thrombotic drugs, which dissolve clots in brain vessels, drugs to lower blood cholesterol, and drugs to control intracerebral pressure.  Supportive treatment like oxygen supplementation, drugs to stop vomiting and vertigo, rest, fluid and electrolyte therapy aids in rapid recovery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cerebellar Infarction and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cerebral Ishemia:  
Cerebral Ishemia: Oxygen deprivation due to blockage of blood flow to brain tissues is called cerebral ischemia, it may be localized or can be in large areas of brain, ischemia results in loss of blood supply and death f brain cells called infarction, if treated rapidly it can be reversible but delay in treatment can result in permanent loss of brain function.

Causes are thrombosis or embolic occlusion of blood vessels by clots, which can be primary, or travel from other areas of body, heart attack resulting in inability to pump blood by heart can result in brain ischemia.

Extremely low blood pressure resulting from loss of blood from injury or shock can also result in cerebral ischemia. Ventricular tachycardia and congenital heart disease can also predispose to cerebral ischemia, tumors of brain and blood vessels can obstruct or compress the blood vessels and block blood supply.

Symptoms depends upon extent of ischemia ranging from confusion, weakness or paralysis of both or one side of body, facial palsy, slurred speech or loss of speech, blurred vision or blindness, convulsions or seizures, loss of  control on urination and passing stools.

Diagnostic tools for cerebral ischemia are CT and MRI scans of brain along with blood cholesterol levels, complete blood picture including platelet counts, clotting factor studies, liver function tests; all are helpful to know the cause.

Treatment
is done by antiplatelte and thromobolytic drugs, which dissolve clots in blood vessel and allow reflow of blood supply. Oxygen supplementation, mechanical ventilation, and physiotherapy are supportive treatment options.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cerebral Ishemia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cerebritis:  
Cerebritis: It is inflammation of cerebrum which is a part pf brain doing very important functions like memory, speech, vision, and hearing and motor functions like muscle control and body movements. Inflammation occurs due to dissemination of bacteria from other sites of body like complicated bacterial and fungal infections, as in pneumonia or occurs as a part of autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE.

Symptoms of celebrities are variable and range according to degree of damage and part of brain involved usually there is confusion, headache, speech problems, numbness and weakness in one or both sides of body.

Sometimes facial palsy is present, loss of balance and motor incoodination is also present, if inflammation is extensive it can compress the brain structures or increase intracranial pressure, symptoms of primary disease can also be present like rashes on face and bridge of nose.

CT makes diagnosis and MRI scans of brain. Treatment is only supportive, diagnosis is very important because different causes require antibiotics treat different treatment like bacterial pneumonia, immunosuppressive drugs are recommended in SLE. Prompt medical admission and intensive care should be given to patient to prevent permanent brain damage.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cerebritis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cervical Radiculopathy:  
Cervical Radiculopathy: It is a disease involving nerve roots in cervical or neck region, these nerve roots are bundle of nerves, which passes through the spinal cord, and supply various structures and muscles in head and neck region.

Nerves can get inflamed, compressed or injured by various factors like spinal disc prolapse, accidents or injuries leading to spinal cord bones fracture, pressure on back like lifting heavy weights, some blood vessel disorders which compress nerves like tumors.

Aging is also important factor, which causes changes in spinal bone sand cause compression, this disorder presents as pain, numbness and muscle weakness in neck, back radiating to arm and shoulder.

There is constant dull pain, or sharp pain on movements like turning neck or lifting shoulders, patient is unable to move head, neck and arms and if tries to move it gets painful.

X rays, CT, diagnose cervical radiculppathy and MRI scans of neck. Treatment includes pain killers, anti inflammatory and steroid drugs, steroid can be given in oral or in form of local spinal cord injection.

Physiotherapy and neck collars are also very effective; patient is advised rest to affected side and immobility for some days and start of movements after some days of treatment. Surgery for disc prolapse or other causes is required in case of severe disability or pain.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cervical Radiculopathy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cervical Spondylosis:  
Cervical Spondylosis: It is disease consisting of chronic inflammation of bones and joints of cervical vertebrae present in neck. Cervical vertebrae are parts of spinal cord and made up of bones and allow passage of nerve roots and blood vessel through them, spaces between these vertebrae have discs which allow movements like bending, rotating the neck etc.

These vertebrae meet one another at joints, all these structures if damaged by some injury, aging process, or systemic joint and bones diseases like osteoarthritis, osteoporosis etc result in stiffness of joints and discs and damage to nerves.

Cervical spondylosis is often thought to be age related disease. Symptoms are pain and stiffness in neck especially on movements like turning or bending neck, numbness or loss of sensation in arms, neck, upper body and some times chest. In advanced cases, there is loss of balance, difficulty in walking and loss of control over urination and passing stools.

Cervical spondylosis is diagnosed by x ray spine. Most severe cases needed CT and MRI scans to evaluate the exact cause.  Physiotherapy and local massage is very effective in mild cases painkillers and muscle relaxants are drugs pf choice. Severe cases causing disability requires surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cervical Spondylosis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chancroid:  
Chancroid: Chancroid is also called soft sore or soft ulcer, it is sexually transmitted diseases caused by a bacterium hemophiliacs ducreyi. Patient develop painful open ulcer on genital region called Chancre with swollen lymph nodes on groin. In  some patients painful urination  and defecation is also seen. In women vaginal discharge and rectal bleeding can also occur. It is transmitted through unsafe sexual practices like in people who have antibiotics and safe sex  awareness should be given to patients to decrease its incidence. In this page, we are going to discuss about Chancroid and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chicken Pox :  
Chicken Pox: Chicken pox is viral disease caused by a virus varicella zostar It is very contagious disease and usually occurs in children but if occurred in adults it is more severe. it is transmitted through air born droplets and through use of material of infected person.It usually starts with prodromal symptoms like fever, body ache, malaise and later vesicular rashes appear on trunk and head progressing to peripheries, but rashes are non-scarring, there is severe itching associated with these rashes.patients need to be isolated. Children are not allowed to go schools for at least three weeks. It is self resolving infection and complete its course if patient gets supportive treatment like good rest and food, isolation, in children antibiotics are given to avoid bacterial infections like pneumonia and anti allergic drugs  can be given for itching. There is also a vaccine available to prevent this infection and this infection is no more a major medical threat now a days.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chicken Pox and its clinical features, complications of chicken pox, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chloral Hydrate:  
Chloral Hydrate: Chloral hydrate is sedative and hypnotic drug used to treat insomnia or lack of sleep and to release stress and depression,   previously it was used as anesthetic drug prior to minor dental and surgical procedures but its use was banned due to its narrow therapeutic index. In high doses, it can arrest respiration and blood pressure. It was also used as veterinary anesthetic. Now a day it is used in laboratories as culture medium.  Its poisoning is common in people who use it illegally for recreational purpose, it is usually used along with other drugs like alcohol; It produces dependence and addiction after long-term use. 

Symptoms: Acute poisoning results in nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, progressing to difficulty in breathing, slow respiration, confusion, coma, and irregular heartbeat and ultimately unconsciousness, stupor and coma. Its chronic or long-term toxicity results in cardiac arrhythmias, indigestion and skin rashes.

Diagnosis: Plasma or blood levels of chloral hydrate are diagnostic of toxicity. ECG changes determine the cardiac damage.

Treatment:  In case of acute poisoning stomach, wash is effective. In more severe cases hemo dialysis is required with artificial ventilation and hemodynamic support.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chloral Hydrate and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chloroform:  
Chloroform: Chloroform is an organic solvent and was used as anesthetics in surgical procedures previously, it was also used by criminals to make people unconscious, and to commit murders because it is highly lethal and low doses can cause death within very short time, its sale and use are now banned due to its toxicity but it is still used as solvent in laboratories, industries and by pharmaceutical companies, its poisoning can occur accidentally in people working in industries.

Symptoms:
Chloroform is CNS  depressant , it cause respiratory and cardiac arrest even at very low doses,  initially it cause headache, stupor , unconsciousness, seizures or shaky movements of body , agitation, coma,  and cardio respiratory collapse. Renal and liver damage are major complications in survivors.

Diagnosis:
Measurement of levels of chloroform in different body fluids is diagnostic. Chloroform has characteristic smell which can make diagnosis easy; pupils are dilated in chloroform poisoning.

Treatment: Immediate decontamination is needed. Remove clothes and carry the patient away from affected environment. Medical staff who is Treating the patient should wear masks because chloroform is highly volatile can affect people in patient surrounding, dialysis with defibrillator of heart and respiratory support with artificial ventilation is required for good outcome.

In this page, we are going to discuss about chloroform and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chloroquine:  
Chloroquine: Chloroquine is a drug used to prevent and treat malaria. Its use is wide spread as empirical or preventive therapy in underdeveloped malaria endemic area. Chloroquin has low therapeutic index that means it has low safety profile and can toxicity easily. Its toxicity or overdose can result in death. It rapidly absorbed from intestine. It is also used as immunosuppressant agent. It is metabolized in liver. Overdose or toxicity is common in chronic users and in children who mistakenly ingest the drug.

Symptoms: Chloroquine causes cardiac depression with know heart rate and low blood pressure. It also causes arrhythmias or irregular heartbeat; symptoms are nausea, vomiting, seizures, decreased level of consciousness and blurred vision.

Diagnosis: There are characteristic ECG changes; there is no marked sedation of unconsciousness. Seizures are common; history of travel to malaria endemic areas is present.

Treatment: Decontaminated should be done promptly  by ingestion of activated charcoal and  stomach wash, There are drugs available which can be used as antidote .seizures should be controlled with muscle relaxant. Further treatment is supportive with cardio respiratory support and fluid and electrolyte balance.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chloroquine and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cholera:  
Cholera: Cholera is a serious infection caused by organism vibrio cholera which is  a bacterium. Source of infection is mainly contaminated water in underdeveloped countries and sea food  in developed countries, it appears as profuse diarrhea leading to severe dehydration  and electrolyte imbalance sometimes leading to death. So it is a lethal infection which is to be diagnosed and treated rapidly and effectively. ORT therapy with ORS solution is main treatment, in case of severe dehydration patient should be given intravenous fluid. Antibiotics also play a role  but due to development of resistance against bacteria their role is controversial now a days. In this page, we are going to discuss about Cholera, causes of malaria, symptoms and incubation period, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chorea:  
Chorea: Chorea is hyperkinetic movement disorder, consists of excessive involuntary movements of muscles or group of muscles, and involves successesive muscles in series as seen in dancing.

These movements are not repetitive and not under the control of patients, results in difficulty in walking and abnormal postures. These movements occur mostly commonly in hands, feet, legs and arms, they are of short duration and stop in one muscle and start in another muscle group or part of body.

There are many types and causes of chorea, when chorea involves only one side of body it is called hemichorea, causes of chorea are genetic disorders like Huntington's disease, side effects of some drugs like antidepressants and  antipsychotic drugs, accumulation of  toxins  in body, ,metabolic disorders,  as  complication of childhood disorders like rheumatic fever, pregnancy can also  cause chorea.

Diagnosis is done through clinical history and examination. There is no treatment for chorea but movements can be controlled by some drugs, which are given by neurologist.

Huntingtonís disease: It is genetic disorder causing abnormal movements called chorea, cognitive function failure like intellectual, judgmental and decision power along with psychiatric problems. It is due to mutation in genes coding for Huntingtonís protein, which become abnormal and cause premature aging of neurons or brain cells.

Symptoms vary from person to person, and parents transmit this gene into their offspring. Symptoms are jerky involuntary movements of limbs called chorea, abnormal patterns of walk and posture, abnormality in facial expressions, difficulty in speech, progressive decline in mental functions leading to complete loss of memory or dementia.

Anxiety, depression and suicidal tendencies are also present. Muscles all over the body are affected; complications are pneumonia, cardiac failure, difficulty in swallowing leading to malnutrition and weight loss.

Diagnosis is made by history and examination, family history of disease is usually present, CT and MRI scans of brain show atrophy or shrinkage in specific areas, blood tests are available to detect mutated or abnormal genes. No treatment has been discovered until now but some drugs are available for symptomatic relief, physiotherapy and rehabilitation are done to achieve levels of normal living and include speech therapists and genetic counselors.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chorea and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.


Chronic Actinic Dermatitis:  
Chronic Actinic Dermatitis: It is also known as chronic solar keratosis. It is appearance of thick scaly red spots or plaques on skin on long-term exposure to sun light. It is common in fair people and in those who have outdoor work. It is usually present in old and middle aged people with years of sun exposure.

Lesions are present in sun-exposed areas of skin like face, hands arms, neck and chest. There are hard scaly raised plaques with rough surface, surrounding skin is tanner red or wrinkled, sometimes extensions of skin like horns emerge from these lesions, these do not cause any pain or itching.

This disease carries a risk of skin cancer, small percentage of people who had this type of keratosis developed sqamous cell cancer of skin. History of long sun exposure, physical appearance helps in reaching diagnosis. Skin biopsy confirms diagnosis.

Solar keratosis is prevent by lessening the sun exposure by covering the exposed body parts and by using sun blocks of increased strength of SPF. SPF is sun protective factor and a proper dermatologist suggests SPF strength of sun block. Lesions respond to steroids, anti inflammatory and chemotherapeutic agents. Strict watch should be kept on any change in skin lesions because the disease is precancerous.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Actinic Dermatitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Bronchitis:  
Chronic Bronchitis: Bronchitis persisting for longer time and recurring is usually chronic bronchitis. By definition cough with sputum persisting for ten days  or recurring in  three months period  is chronic bronchitis.Main causative factor is smoking. chronic bronchitis usually ends up with complications like cor pulmonale(right sided heart failure), emphysema (chronic obstructive lung disease) and pulmonary hypertension.It is common in smokers, persons working in mines and textile factory workers.  there is a need to create awareness regarding health hazards of smoking to avoid chronic bronchitis. In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Bronchitis and types of Chronic Bronchitis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Cholecystitis:  
Chronic Cholecystitis: Chronic inflammation of gall bladder is called chronic cholecystitis. Gall bladder is small pear shaped organ, which stores bile prepared by liver. It is usually secondary to repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis, usually history of gall stones is present spanning over months to years. 

Chronic inflammation leads to fibrosis and shrinkage of gall bladder with loss of normal function.

Symptoms: Patient has inability to digest fats, greasy clay colored stools, recurrent episodes of abdominal pain on upper right quadrant, nausea, vomiting, and fever, sometimes jaundice is present, general malaise, fatigue and loss of appetite is present.

It may be complicated to cause pancreatitis, severe jaundice, and gall bladder carcinoma.

Diagnosis: It is done by ultrasound abdomen, CT and MRI scans. Different blood tests like liver function tests, complete blood count and ESR are also help full in diagnosis.

Treatment: Chronic cholecystitis is treated by surgery, this procedure is called cholecystectomy. It may be open or laparoscopic, in open cholecystectomy, gall bladder is removed by major incision in abdominal wall, and in laparoscopic case it is removed by camera-guided instruments through small abdominal holes with little or no scar.

In this page, we are going to discuss about chronic cholecystitis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Cor Pulmonale:  
Chronic Cor Pulmonale: Inflammation of heart musculature is called myocarditis. Most of the cases are of viral origin, bacterial and fungal and parasitic infections can also cause myocarditis.

Some autoimmune disorders and drug reactions are also major cause, other etiologies are toxin sand poisonous gases, snake bite, electric shock, chemotherapy and radiations, and heart transplant rejection. Myocarditis can be acute or chronic. Mild case  might be asymptomatic or it can  van be ended up in  myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy with heart failure or even cardiac arrhythmias with associated signs and symptoms.

Symptoms are chest pain, palpitation, fever, fatigue, muscle pain, or shortness of breath, and edema or swelling.

Diagnosis can be made by Echocardiography, ECG,CT and MRI scans of heart, serology detects antibodies against viruses are positive as well as specific antibodies in autoimmune cases, cardiac markers are elevated which are heart muscle enzymes, increased levels of cardiac enzymes are very reliable estimate of cardiac muscle injury.

Treatment depends upon the cause, most of the cases are viral so supportive treatment is given with bed rest, oxygen supplementation and card active drugs. Life threatening cases need heart transplantation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Cor Pulmonale  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Dyspepsia:  
Chronic Dyspepsia: Chronic dyspepsia is persistent indigestion secondary to causes that are irritating to stomach mucosa, there are so many causes of this condition like low grade infection with microorganisms like helicopter pylori, poor eating habits like excessive eating, sedentary position after  taking meal, lack of exercise, stress, eating without proper chewing or eating rapidly, improper timing of meals, late night meals, taking too much spicy and acidic foods. Sometimes the cause is unknown without any organic clue.

 Symptoms: Symptoms are epigastria burning, pain and fullness after meals especially at night, persistent nausea, vomiting, and mild cramping abdominal pain, abdominal fullness or bloating after even after small meals, flatulence or inability to pass gases, sometimes low-grade diarrhea, with bouts or episodes of constipation. There is poor appetite and weight loss and poor health due to absorption of nutrients.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually made through history and examination. Patient usually tells about  stress full life , busy job schedule, or poor eating habits , blood tests are required to diagnose helicopter antibodies, sometimes endoscopy is necessary  in severe cases.

Treatment: Treatment is according to symptoms. Drugs to control vomiting  and anti spasmodic drugs are given to relieve discomfort, drugs which lower acid secretion in stomach are very useful in it, patients are advised to adopt good eating habits change life style, and to indulge in pleasurable hobbies to relieve stress, exercise  like walking and jogging also has good impacts on condition.

In this page, we are going to discuss about chronic dyspepsia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Mountain Sickness:  
Chronic Mountain Sickness: Chronic mountain sickness is present in individuals who live on high altitudes, in mountainous areas and hilly areas which are present at the height of 8000 feet above sea levels, oxygen levels are decreased in atmosphere. People who live on these areas are continuously exposed to low oxygen and chronic hypoxia develops in these people.  Different organ systems respond and acclimatize to low oxygen concentration resulting in development of various symptoms, including weakness, shortness of breath on work, malaise, headache clubbing of fingers and polycythemia. Polycythemia is increased no. of red blood cell in blood in response to low oxygen. Red cell production is  under the control of a hormone called erythropoietin which is excreted mainly by kidneys,  erythropoietin production increases in response to low oxygen and it results in increased production of red cells. Polycythemia results in joint pain, itching, bruising, dizziness and abdominal pain. Doctors usually advice change of climate in these patients because high altitude is the main factor in development of disease, oxygen supplementation is helpful in these patients along with control of symptoms. In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Mountain Sickness and types of Chronic Mountain Sickness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Pain Syndrome:  
Chronic Pain Syndrome: It is defined as pain lasting more then 3 to 6 months due to any reason associated with depression, anxiety and complaints related to side effects of drugs to relieve pain.

There are thousands of causes of chronic pain syndrome, most common causes can be divided into functional and organic causes, and functional causes are those not associated with any real disease like try to get abstinence from work, study or to avoid people, to take attention of family, friend or loved ones or to make relationship with doctors or staffs.

Organics causes are most commonly associated with heart , gastrointestinal, kidney and neurological diseases, like angina,  disc prolapse, migraine,  gastric ulceration, constipation, cancers, urinary tract infections and stones, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy in women, intrauterine contraceptive devices  can also be the cause of chronic pain,  joint pains like arthritis, musculoskeletal pain associated with bad postures are also contributive to chronic pain syndrome; it is   more common in women and obese people. Often people with chronic pain syndrome develop psychological problems, dependency, misuse or abuse of drugs, or poor compliance.

Diagnosis requires thorough history and detailed examination and patients have to follow in out patient department on regular basis to give both and medicinal and behavioral therapy. Pain killers, rest, reassurance, aerobic and stretching exercises, balanced diet and weight loss programmes are advised to patients.

In this page, we are going to discuss about chronic pain syndrome and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Prostatitis:  
Chronic Prostatitis: Chronic prostatitis is inflammation of prostate, which have history of weeks or months, it may be asymptomatic or present mild symptoms.

Acute prostatitis can become chronic if not completely treated, repeated urinary tract infections, enlarged prostate, diabetes, repeated urinary catheterization are risk factors for chronic prostatitis.

Chronic prostatitis is of two types bacterial, and as a part of chronic pelvic syndrome whose cause is unknown. Chronic prostatitis presents as mild constant pain in waist, back and groins, there is pain and difficulty in urination, pussy discharge from urine or semen, pain on passing stool and pain around anus.

On rectal examination prostate is felt enlarged and painful to touch, urinalysis and semen analysis shows pus cells or bacteria, x-ray and ultrasound also detects the enlarged inflamed prostate, one specific test for chronic prostatitis is measuring levels of  antibody  called prostate specific antigen PSA which in raised in blood, this antigen is also increased in prostate cancer.

Treatment depends on cause if cause is bacterial then antibiotics are effective and give complete recovery, if cause is unknown then only symptomatic treatment is given including pain killers, hot baths to pelvic area and controlling diabetes. In case of enlarged prostate, it has to be removed surgically.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Prostatitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Renal Failure:  
Chronic Renal Failure: In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Renal Failure  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Thyroditis:  
Chronic Thyroditis: It is also called Hashimotoís Thyroiditis. It is chronic inflammation of thyroid gland due to autoimmune process; as a result thyroid gland continues to be destroyed by antibodies formed against its tissues.

Thyroid gland is enlarged and cause goiter or swelling of thyroid gland; later the whole gland shrinks and symptoms of hypothyroidism developed. It is more common in females and patients have family history of hypothyroisdism or other endocrine disorders, the diseases remain asymptomatic or stable for years, when gland is destroyed it shrinks in size causing symptoms of hypothyroidism

Symptoms: Patient has swelling on neck. Hoarseness of voice, low slurred speech, difficulty in swallowing and breathing, there is  intolerance to cold, patient develops constipation, decreased heart rate,  weight gain, loss of libido, scanty irregular periods in females, patient becomes weak, lethargic and depressed, dry skin, hair loss, constipation and  infertility also develops.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by presence of antibodies against thyroid tissues called Antithyroglobulin antibodies. Serum TSH levels are high and T4 levels are low. T3 levels are either low or normal. Treatment: Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is given. Most patients respond to this treatment and have good prognosis.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Chronic Thyroditis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Chronic Upper Limb Syndrome:  
Chronic Upper Limb Syndrome: It is a syndrome comprising of symptoms affecting upper arms and forearms for long periods usually 6 months onwards, it is common in people doing excessive work by hands or associated with some occupations like keyboard workers, tailors, and writers; it is also called repetitive strain injury or overuse syndrome.

Excessive exertion can lead to muscle, tendon and fascia injury and inflammation leading to weakness, pain, abnormal sensation, limited activity and loss of work. Syndromes ahs high association with fatigue and depression and mood disorders, aside from overexertion, other factors or diseases behind are carpel tunnel syndrome, various types of arthritis like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, tendonitis, fibrositis.

Pain may be referred from cervical region due to cervical nerves involvement. Diagnosis is based on taking history both personal and occupational, along with radiological studies including X rays and nerve conduction vekocities and EMG studies.

Chronic upper limb syndrome often require change of occupation, adequate rest, wise use of pain killers, braces and elastic bandages worn over hands and wrists are quite comfortable. Stretching exercise and physiotherapy is main supportive treatment and has great importance in relieving chronic discomfort.

In this page, we are going to discuss about chronic upper limb syndrome and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ciguatera Fish:  
Ciguatera Fish: It is a type of food poisoning caused by eating certain species pf fish that contain toxin called ciguatera toxin. Most commonly contaminated fishes are snappers, groupers, triggerfishes and parrotfishes.

Symptoms:
Several hours after eating fish patient develops nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, muscle weakness, vertigo dizziness, shortness of breath, itching, numbness and tingling sensation on skin, excessive salivation, watery eyes,  and ultimately paralysis.

One characteristic symptom is burning sensation on contact to cold. Sometimes slow poisonings occurs presenting as painful intercourse in healthy normal individual who used these types of fish often. Symptoms can recover and then relapse again on eating certain types of food like alcohol, chicken, eggs, and fish. Toxin can pass from mother to baby presenting as diarrhea and skin rashes.

Diagnosis: There is no specific test for human poisoning but numerous laboratory tests are available to detect toxin in extract of fish.

Treatment:
There is no antidote for ciguatera poisoning. Treatment in mainly supportive with stomach wash, cardio respiratory support and fluid therapy is main stay of treatment. Prevention should be done through laboratory testing of fish and fish products for detection of toxin prior to sale.

In this page, we are going to discuss about ciguatera fish and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cirrhosis Of Liver:  
Cirrhosis Of Liver: It is shrinkage and fibrosis of liver; it shows end stage of liver failure. In Cirrhotic, liver normal parenchyma is replaced by fibrous tissue, which cannot do normal functions resulting in liver failure.

Liver cirrhosis is secondary to various diseases; it is very dangerous and discomforting state. Because liver is the main organ which detoxifies toxins, produce antibodies and metabolize most food particles because of cirrhosis these functions cannot be done and person predisposed to many problems.

Causes: Infection with hepatitis viruses B and C are major causes of cirrhosis. Alcohol abuse is anther cause; various metabolic diseases can also cause cirrhosis like Wilsonís disease. Chronic iron overload as occurs in hereditary hemo chromatists is another cause. Obesity, hepatic toxic substances, long-term corticosteroid therapy, glycogen storage diseases and lipid storage diseases all cause cirrhosis.

Symptoms: In early stages patient is asymptomatic, then if diseases progresses and liver  stops functioning, various  symptoms occur including loss of appetite, weight loss, jaundice or yellow discoloration of skin, black stool, rectal bleeding, indigestion, vomiting, swelling of abdomen sometimes huge to cause shortness of breath, this swelling is called ascites, clubbing of fingers, bruises on skin, infections, anemia, renal failure secondary to liver failure resulting  initially in increased urination then decreased urine output , bone pain.

Other complications are confusion and coma, esophageal varies, constipation and ascites resulting in severe dyspepsia and cardiac failure.

Diagnosis: Method of diagnosis is liver biopsy. It gives the exact clue of liver fibrosis, ultrasound abdomen and CT scan are also used to detect complications like ascites, and endoscopy is required to detect esophageal varies.

Treatment: In initial stages supportive treatment is needed like drainage of ascites, banding of esophageal varies, prevention of constipation and coma by laxatives. Moreover, symptomatic treatment. Final treatment of end stage disease is liver transplant.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cirrhosis Of Liver and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Clergymans Sore Throat:  
Clergymans Sore Throat: Tonsillitis caused by a bacterium; streptococcus progenies is called clergymanís tonsillitis. It is a part of generalized infection of throat called clergymanĎs sore throat.

It is also called septic throat or streptococcus sore throat; it may be the beginning of generalized streptococcal infection called scarlet fever. Which consists of sore throat and tonsillitis along with appearance of rash on skin and joint involvement, it is a condition, which can lead to serious condition in later years of life called rheumatic fever in which heart valves are damaged by an autoimmune process.

This process begins, because the antigens in streptococcus bacteria are similar to antigens present in heart valves and when body immune cells destroy streptococcus antigens they also recognize heart valve antigens as foreign and damage them also. Clergymanís tonsillitis or spore throat is common in children but can also occur in adult life.

Symptoms: Clergymanís tonsillitis appears as pain in throat, enlarged inflamed red tonsils often protruding in throat cavity, difficulty in swallowing, high grade fever, malaise and fatigue.

Lymph glands are enlarged at angle of jaw and at the base of neck, there is hoarseness of voice, tonsils and walls of throat often are covered with whitish substance, in form of patches or streak with areas of redness, tongue is coated and furred in early stages. Symptoms usually resolve in four to six weeks.

Diagnosis: History and throat examination gives clue to diagnosis; throat culture is an important tool. Blood tests to detect streptococcal antibodies are key tool to reach the diagnosis.

Treatment: Treatment should be started as soon as possible because inadequate treatment leads to sever complication later in life. Antibiotic should be started after throat culture report; antibiotics should be given for at least seven to ten days for complete eradication of infection.

Humidifiers and steam inhalation are beneficial for soothing and for discomfort of throat, rest should be given to patients along with plenty of fluids and hot beverages are very helpful for pain and hoarseness of voice; like tea, coffee and soups.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Clergymans Sore Throat and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Clinical Approach To The Patients:  
Clinical approach to the patients: In this page, we are going to discuss about clinical approach to the patients and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis:  
Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis: Pneumoconiosis is a group of lung diseases caused by deposition of mineral dust in lung resulting in destruction of lung morphology and functions.

Coal work's pneumoconiosis is one the disease included in occupational lung diseases because theses diseases are associated with exposure of hazardous particles in occupational setting. As the name suggest it is a pneumoconiosis associated with deposition of coal particles in lungs, it is common in people working in coalmines.

Extent of damage depend on period of exposure, size of particle type of organic dust, sometimes it is asymptomatic, people with chronic exposure usually develop symptoms like cough  and sputum production.

Complicated cases present with respiratory difficulty, signs and symptoms of cor pulmonale or right ventricular failure, edema on lower limbs, superimposed infection results in fever, malaise, night sweats. Smoking also predisposes to complications with pre existing damage with coal.

Diagnostic tools are blood tests and sputum culture. Chest radiography is very helpful, nodular capacities are seen on x-ray chest. Pulmonary function tests are useful for determining the extent of damage.

Prevention is only through minimizing exposure or change of job or cessation of smoking is also important, people working in mines should have regular medical checkups to diagnose initial disease, sometimes occupation change is needed to decrease the incidence and complication of disorder. Treatment is mainly supportive and according to symptoms. All patients should receive immunization against infection because superimposed bacterial and viral infections in these patients can be lethal.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis and types of Coal Workers Pneumoconiosis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Coaretation Of Aorta:  
Coaretation Of Aorta: It is congenital heart disease and often associated with other heart valve defects or anomalies, aorta is narrowed at the level of ductus arteriosus, which is channel in  which by passes lung circulation in intrauterine life, narrowing can  occur  at lower or upper border of ductus, children develop symptoms later in life.

Symptoms may be mild or severe depending upon the degree off narrowing, some times compensatory development of blood vessel channel occurs around the defect which supplies blood supply to body and does not produce symptoms until left ventricle hypertrophy develops which compromise heart function.

Symptoms of coarctation in children are noticed when child fails to grow according to age, poor feeding, delayed milestones, later on with heart failure, shortness of breath, vertigo, weakness, palpitation, fainting, chest pain, cold and blue limbs are common complaints. Best diagnostic tool is MRI scans of heart though chest x ray and Echocardiograms also give adequate hints about the defect. Treatment might be conservative or in severe cases immediate surgery is required.

In this page, we are going to discuss about coaretation of aorta and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cocaine:  
Cocaine: Cocaine is commonly abused substance for recreational purposes and people usually take it to relieve tension and stresses of daily life, it is absorbed through mucosal surface.

Its use is common through smoking and by sniffing. It has local pain reliving effects on body organs and has stimulating effect on central nervous system. its poisoning  usually occur accidentally; people take higher doses to greatly increase the effects, with increasing dose tolerance develops  which means effects are not achieved  despite  of increasing the dose. Poisoning may be acute or chronic

Symptoms: Symptoms of overdose are confusion; increased and abnormal sense of well being called euphoria, seizures or fits, patient has increased heart rate and increased blood pressure along with hyperthermia or increased basal body temperature. Complications are cerebral edema, brain hemorrhage, heart attack and cardiogenic shock and acute renal failure.

Diagnosis: History and examination usually helpful in determining the cause. There is not enough time to make laboratory investigation.

Treatment: Treatment basically aims toward decreasing CNS stimulation and to prevent complications. In initial stages activated charcoal is given through naso gastric tube  to prevent absorption, hypothermia is treated by local cooling measures like cold sponging, sedation is effective in controlling most symptoms, sometimes artificial ventilation and intubation is necessary with cardio respiratory support.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cocaine and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Colon And Rectum:  
Colon And Rectum: Colon and rectum are parts of large intestine and play very important role indigestive system. Colon is long tube  divided in small sacs  and occupy the corners of abdomen, it is divided mainly into three parts, ascending colon which begins  at  ilea cercal junction  and ends  at right corner of  liver.

The junction  where  ascending colon  turns is called hepatic flexure, transverse colon extends from right corner of liver to left corner of spleen this junction is called splendid flexure. From splendid flexure descending colon starts which ends at rectum at left lower side of abdomen, rectum is pouch which stores the formed feces till its is expelled from body.

Colon and rectum are lined by three layers: mucosa, muscular layer and the serous layer. The main function of colon is absorption of fluid and electrolytes from digested food; it actually maintains the fluid balance between intestinal wall and food. Colon contains many bacteria, which are useful bacteria, which   neutralize toxins present in food.

Muscular layer of colon contains bunch of blood vessels and nerves, veins carry absorbed particles from intestine to liver and blood, arteries carry the oxygen and nutrients necessary for different functions of intestine. Colon is under control of brain by nerves; various stimuli like stress, anxiety and other emotions greatly affect the absorption and motility of colon.

Feces are propelled within colon by wave like contraction of its parts, this movement is called peristalsis. Different organisms and factors like inflammation increase peristaltic activity resulting in diarrhea. Stress and low fiber diet decrease the motility and results in constipation. Rectum is also under control of nerves from brain and other parts pf intestine; it begins to expel feces when reflex comes from higher centers to defecate. Rectumís opening is called anus. Anus is closed all the time by band like structure called anal sphincter it only opens on defecation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Colon And Rectum and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Compression Of Brain:  
Compression Of Brain: Brain compression is brain injury due to pressure. Common causes for brain compression are head injury, skull fractures, mass lesions, swelling or inflammation, tumor, infections, accumulation of fluid, or accumulation of blood or hematoma, enlarged blood vessels or ventricles, (ventricles are channels within brain, which drain tissue fluid).

Due to compression; brain cells, which are called neurons, are damaged and their normal function is impaired, resulting in loss of function in different areas of body, brain compression can cause serious and permanent damage of brain cells if not treated immediately.

Symptoms depend on location of compression, usually patients present with drowsiness, unconsciousness, severe headache, vomiting, blurred vision, confusion, altered behavior, unequal size of pupils, slow breathing, and slow pulse. X rays of skull, CT, make diagnosis of brain compression and MRI scans, history of head injury is usually present.

Compression needs urgent hospitalization and decompression by either medicine or by emergency surgery for decompression of brain like drainage of hematoma, orthopedic surgery for fractures and dislocations of skull bones.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Compression Of Brain  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Concusion Of Brain:  
Concusion Of Brain: It is defined as mild injury or trauma to brain resulting in temporary loss of function.  Causes of concussion of brain are road traffic accidents particularly motorbike accidents, car accidents leading to brain injury, sports injuries, light blow and falls.

Symptoms ate transient and temporary and resolve within week or so. Sometime it can cause delayed complications or problems later in life like dementia or loss of memory, Parkinsonism and Alzheimerís disease.

Initial symptoms of concussion are confusion, disorientation, vomiting, and headache. Dizziness and loss of consciousness for some time, when gets conscious patients has short term loss of memory and forgets the events prior to and after injury or trauma, but this is  transient and patient gradually starts remembering things, sensitivity to light, blurred vision, ringing in ears, or seizures can occur.

Concussion brain injury  is diagnosed by neurophysical examination, and history, loss of consciousness  less then 30 minutes and loss of memory less then 24 hours are indicative of concussion but if these symptoms persist for more then this  durations then CT and MRI scans are necessary to detect more severe injuries.

Adequate rest does treatment and gradual return to normal activities, painkillers should be given for pain, sleeping pills should not be given. Wait and watch strategy is best adopted and any intervention should not be made without any serious symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Concision Of Brain  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia:  
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: It is a group of genetic disorders in which cortisol production genes are deficient  in developing babe as a result cortisol is not formed  which normally begin to be synthesized at  2nd month of intrauterine  life .

Because of cortisol deficiency, increased ACTH (a hormone released from brain) cause compensatory proliferation and hyperplasia of remaining adrenal gland which synthesize sex hormones and hormones regulating fluid balance in body, symptoms either present at birth or develop later in life. Primary and secondary sexual characters are altered with fluid and electrolyte irregularities.

Symptoms: Symptoms vary according to type of disease and gender of patient. There is vomiting, dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, in females there are malformed genitalia, including short vagina, enlarged clitoris, irregular menstruation, an ovulation and infertility, in males normal penis is present but testes are not formed properly, delayed puberty can be a problem in both sexes, sometimes  mixed external genitalia are of both sexes are present  at birth and it is difficult to diagnose the sex.

Diagnosis: It is done by examination and measurement of steroid hormones on blood tests.

Treatment: There is no specific treatment since it is genetic disease, treatment depends on the symptoms,  it is treated by giving corticosteroids, at puberty sex hormones are given  to develop secondary sexual characters., dehydration is treated by giving fluid and electrolyte replacement. Drugs are given to delay puberty and for optimal bone growth.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Constipation:  
Constipation: Constipation is very common symptom and is defined as infrequent passing of stools or passage of very hard stools often accompanied by pain.

Causes: Most common causes of constipation are poor eating habits, lack of fiber in diet, lack of water intake, dehydration  and eating very small  amount of food due to loss of appetite, lack of mobility or exercise; all these factors lead to decreased bowel movements and decreased absorption of water resulting in hard  infrequent stools, constipation may be secondary to stress or anxiety as result of impaired nerve stimulation from higher centers of brain.

Certain diseases and hormonal imbalances also result in constipation like hypothyroidism, diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome, pregnancy is also a risk factor for constipation because of hormonal imbalance.

One major cause of constipation is intestinal obstruction secondary to inflammatory conditions, tumors and cancers of small and large intestines. In children constipation is common if they are not properly toilet trained , because of fear of going alone in toilets they usually inhibit their defecation intentionally which ultimately lead to constipation.

Diagnosis: Because constipation is symptom of underlying disorder and diseases so cause should be evaluated through history, examination, and different test, a thorough history about eating habits, life style and level of stress in life, gives clue about diagnosis. X ray abdomen is helpful to see the obstruction; ultrasound is also very effective to detect tumors or inflammatory lesions.

Treatment: Treatment is according to cause, if obstruction is suspected immediate surgery is done called; laparoscopy to relieve the obstruction. Enemas and glycerin suppositories are used to stimulate rectum to evacuate stools. Sometimes in children, manual Removal of hard stools is done with gloved fingers.

Patients are advised to have fruits, vegetables, and high fiber diet either in natural form or in form of supplements. High water and fluid intake also give much relief. Olive oil and castor oil are also used to increase gut mobility and relieve constipation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Constipation and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Constructive Pericarditis:  
Constructive Pericarditis: It is a type of chronic pericarditis, it usually occurs due to improperly treated  acute pericarditis or when acute pericarditis has aggressive uncontrollable course, by definition  symptoms of pericarditis lasting more then 6 months  constitutes chronic pericarditis, causes are same causing acute pericarditis like viral, bacterial and fungal infections, autoimmune processes,  uremic pericarditis and pericaditis due to drugs ( i.e. side effects of antituberculous drugs, some antibiotics and anticoagulants) tuberculosis, cancers and myocardial infarction are common  causes of constrictive pericarditis, constrictive is name given to this type due to the fact that long term  inflammation  causes fibrosis of pericardial sac which compresses heart and prevents its normal contraction, constrictive pericarditis if extensive can cause cardiac temponade which can in  turn result in sudden death.

Symptoms are chest pain associated with position, palpitation, low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and symptoms of heart failure like swelling of body, prominent veins on neck, liver and spleen enlargement.

Diagnosis is made on clinical examination, chest x ray and Echocardiography, chest x ray shows typical appearance of constricted heart like flask. Mild cases respond to anti inflammatory drugs and drugs to improve cardiac function, and to prevent heart failure, severe cases need urgent surgery which involves cutting the fibrous  pericardial sac to relieve pressure on heart.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Constructive Pericarditis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Contact Irrtant Eczema:  
Contact Irrtant Eczema: This type of eczema results from continuous exposure of skin to irritant substances, it is common in industrial workers and even in house hold, common irritants which cause this type of eczema are soaps, detergents, paints, polishes, dish washers, toilet cleaners and some oils used for machines etc. hands are most affected parts.

Continuous exposure to water aggravate the condition, for example people working in hotels, in dish washing units and cooks have to wash the hands again and again and this can lead to development of eczema, some hobbies also predispose to this condition like painters are continuously exposed to paints and they have to clean their hands with thinners to remove paints, thinners and paints act as irritants and cause eczema.

Symptoms:
  There is red scaly rash on hands, with itching or irritation, some time they can be infected in case of skin trauma. Skin can become thick in case of long-term exposure.

Diagnosis: Occupational history is very important. People give the history of exposure; this together with physical appearance of skin lesions makes diagnosis easy.

Treatment: To prevent this type of eczema contact of irritant needs to be stopped or minimized, if it is not possible person at risk should wear gloves before handling such irritants. Condition is treated by moisturizing the skin with emollients; topical steroids are used in more severe cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about contact irrtant eczema  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cough:  
Cough: Cough is normal physiological reflex to exhale the inhaled foreign particles like dust, infective microbes and debris, irritants and secretions. Cough may be specific pointing towards some serious body illness or non-specific in response to local irritation or allergies.

Cough is a major symptom of many diseases like tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, respiratory infections and lung cancers.

It is of four major types:
1. Acute
2. Chronic
3.  Productive
4. Non-productive

Cough lasting for less then three weeks is acute cough and not that dangerous and responds to minor treatment. Chronic cough is cough persisting for more then 8 months, it indicates some serious infection or condition of respiratory system.

It is most common in smoking or chronic bronchitis, tuberculosis and lung cancers are another important cause of chronic cough. Nonproductive cough is dry cough and very irritating and very much distressing, it is usually due to allergies. Productive cough is cough containing large amount of mucus and usually due to infections.

Diagnosis: It is usually based on underlying cause. Chest X-ray, sputum analysis, culture, and blood tests are supportive tools for diagnosis.

Treatment: there are many cough suppressants available in market but they are useful in dry cough, infact, they should not be used in productive cough because cough in this case is major reflex to exhale infected mucus. 

Cessation of smoking must be advised. Herbal remedies like ginger tea green tea and honey are very much useful as well as steam inhalation. Treatment of underlying cause is after all the main step to relieve it.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cough and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Crohns Disease:  
Crohns Disease: Crohnís disease is an autoimmune disorder of digestive tract. Cause is unknown but there is genetic tendency for this disease, it can affect any part of digestive tract from mouth to anus but more commonly involve small and large intestine. In this disorder there is continuous inflammation resulting in fibrosis or thickening of intestinal walls.

Diseases has remitting and relapsing course, which means symptoms aggravate for short period followed by temporary period of relief.

Symptoms: Variety of symptoms occurs depending on type of part involved. There is loss of appetite, diarrhea, and crimpy abdominal pain, and weight loss, pain on passing stools, fever and fatigue.

Sometimes constipation is present. In many cases  patient passes stool with blood, in rare case diseases becomes complicated resulting in intestinal obstruction, abscess formation,  fistula formation between intestine and pother organs like vagina and urinary tract.( fistula is an abnormal opening between two body cavities), and even cancer can develop  in chronic cases.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, which is direct examination of parts of large intestine to see the pathological lesions. CT and MRI scans are also very helpful. Barium enema is another technique in which dye is injected in intestine to see the stained inflammatory area. Blood tests are usually nonspecific and only give clue of chronic disease.

Treatment: There is no cure for this disease. Some people respond to steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients are advised to adopt healthy eating with lots of water, fruits and vegetables. Other treatment is only symptomatic. In severe4cases, surgery is required to remove the diseased part or sometimes entire intestine.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Crohns Disease and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis:  
Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis: Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis is a chronic lung disease which has a progressive course. In this disease there is fibrosis or thickening of lung  parenchyma due to unknown factors as a result patient develops shortness of breath, clubbing of fingers  and dry cough. Etiology is unknown but smokers, patients with gastrointestinal reflux disease and autoimmune disorders are usually victims of this disease. There is no specific treatment but many patients are helped with oxygen supplementation and other medicines and lung transplantation can also be done in end stage cases. In this page, we are going to discuss about Cryptogenic Fibrosing Alveolitis definition, causes, pathology symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Cushing Syndrome:  
Cushing's Syndrome: : Increased cortisol levels are present in blood in a disorder. Cortisol is a hormone secreted by adrenal gland. Adrenal glands are two small glands present on upper surface of both kidneys.

Cortisol regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates and other food particles. Cushing syndrome can result due to excessive use of corticosteroid drugs for certain diseases like asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE and other autoimmune diseases, patients with organ transplants are also prone to this condition due to steroid use, oral contraceptive drugs or birth control pills also can elevate the cortical levels in blood, Cushing syndrome can also be caused by adrenal gland and pituitary gland tumors.

Symptoms: Patient develops central obesity with swelling of face, typically face appears like moon, dry thin skin, bruises and stria or lines on skin, increased pigmentation of skin can also be seen, fragile hairs and often baldness is present in males with impotence and loss of sexual desire, in females there is excessive growth of hairs on face, irregular scanty menstruation, and infertility. These patients have increased chances of developing diabetes. Often patients have high blood pressure.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cushing's Syndrome and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cyanides:  
Cyanides: Cyanide is very lethal poison and its poisoning can cause immediate death due to oxygen deprivation of cells. cyanide poisoning is common in industrial settings like plastic factories,  accidental ingestion of insecticides, exposure to gases of combusted fuels  and synthetic material, cyanide is also found in some foods like bitter almonds, apple seeds and  apricots, chronic use of these substances can also lead to chronic cyanide poisoning, cigarette smoking fumes also contain cyanide . Cyanide inhibits cellular respiration and cause death with in minutes of exposure.

Symptoms:
Low doses cause headache, vertigo, dizziness, weakness and confusion. High toxic doss produce seizures or fits, coma, respiratory failure and cardiac arrest.

Diagnosis:
People get their skin color pink after exposure. History of exposure is usually given by family and co workers. Blood cyanide levels are diagnostic

Treatment: Immediate diagnosis is very important because delay can result in death, cardio respiratory support  with stomach wash in case of ingestion of cyanide containing substance, hyperbaric high doses of oxygen can be given to save the life, and there is specific antidote available which is given by doctor in emergency room. Chronic exposure and slow poisoning benefits from vitamin B12 supplementation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Cyanides and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cystic Renal Disease:  
Cystic Renal Disease: In this page, we are going to discuss about cystic renal Disease  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cytomegalo Virus Colitis:  
Cytomegalo Virus Colitis: CMV colitis is inflammation of large intestine resulting in diarrhea. Among the CMV family human CMV or herpes virus 5 causes human infection .it is particularly present in salivary glands and saliva of infected person is main route of transmission. In immunocompromised  people specially  HIV,  and people with organ transplant etc, it can cause serious infection. In healthy individuals CMV infections go unnoticed but in people with decreased immunity they can cause life threatening disease. Symptoms of colitis are variable including abdominal pain, fever, malaise, cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, urgency and bloating. Sighs are abdominal tenderness, bloody stool which might be overt or occult; often occult on lab test. Diagnosis is made by   history, blood test, stool culture and colonoscopy. Cytomegalovirus colitis is severe and most dangerous in AIDS patients; it can lead to severe diarrhea   in HIV patients and need urgent therapy with antiviral drugs and immunotherapy to limit its infection. CMV infection is one of the most life threatening infections in AIDS patients. In this page, we are going to discuss about Cytomegalo Virus Colitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Cytomegalo Virus Infection:  
Cytomegalo Virus Infection: Also called CMV is an infection caused by cytomegalovirus. This virus spread through body secretions like saliva, semen, sweat, blood and vaginal secretions. This infection is common in AIDS patients where patients are immunocompromised. Other patients   like cancer patients, renal dialysis patients, patients undergoing multiple blood transfusions and those who are having chemotherapy are also at risk. In common people this virus only produce minor or general symptoms like fatigue, malaise,  sore throat, fever  and  loss of appetite but in immunocompromised persons like AIDS  it can cause severe infections like retinitis which is inflammation of retina. Retina is part of eye which is responsible for vision and as a result of retinitis person can have  blurred vision and even blindness. In AIDS  patient it can also cause diarrhea and  dysphasia which is pain full swallowing, CMV  infection is preventable by maintaining personal hygiene, safe sex habits  and avoid  contact with secretions of infected person  in HIV patients its infection is severe and uncontrollable but antiviral drugs can help to great extent.In this page, we are going to discuss about Cytomegalo Virus Infection and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Deafness:  
Deafness: Deafness or hearing loss is very troublesome situation and can inherited or acquired. In inherited cases baby can get infection from maternal placenta like rubella infection which results in deafness or some medicines taken by mother during pregnancy can cause it, deafness can also be a result of damage to nerves during difficult delivery.

If acquired many cases are responsible for its causation like ototoxic drugs, infections of ear, aging, exposure to noise for long periods, brain injury or fractures, some tumors at base of brain and tumors of ear. Deafness is of two major types, conductive deafness and sensori neural deafness.

Conductive deafness results from defect in conducting system of ear which prevents sound waves to reach inner ear, like wax, polyp or foreign bodies and infection or inflammation of external ear; in this case deafness is temporary and partial. In sensorineural deafness defect occurs in inner ear or hearing system or it can occur secondary to any damage to nerves, in this case deafness could be partial or complete or temporarily or even permanent, depending on extent of damage.


In  any case deafness results in disability and psychological impact on patients and their families and cause must be diagnosed and treated a as soon as possible.

In this page, we are going to discuss about deafness and types of deafness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Decreased Extracellular Volume:  
Decreased Extracellular Volume: In this page, we are going to discuss about Decreased Extracellular Volume  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Decubitus Ulcers:  
Decubitus Ulcers: Decubitus ulcers are pressure sores, which occur due to prolonged recumbent positions in patients of paralysis, fractures, chronic disease, or vessel disease like atherosclerosis.

These ulcers develop usually on bony prominences like hips, back, ankles, and elbows. Ulcers develop due to long-term pressure of bones on underlying tissues, which interrupts blood supply resulting in ischemia of tissues and secondary necrosis, or cell death, this dead area is prone to infection, which further aggravates the condition.

Decubitus ulcers are red open sores, which are very painful, they produce a serous fluid and sometimes after infection pus is formed with yellow secretion and surrounding red or inflamed skin. Dead tissue if present looks like black, brown or dark red area of skin, ulcers may penetrate the deeper tissues resulting in bone or nerve involvement. Damage to nerves produces numbness or complete absence of sensation or abnormal sensations like pricking or tingling.

Diagnosis is obvious by physical history and examination; x rays are taken to detect the deep tissue involvement like bones. Doppler ultrasound detects the changes in vasculature, which may aggravate ulcer like vacuities or atherosclerosis.

Treatment of deceits ulcer is supportive with treatment of underlying cause, change of position is extremely important, because persistent pressure is the main cause of ulcer formation, regular antiseptic dressings should be applied daily or alternate days. Diet is very important , diets rich in  vitamin C  and proteins  greatly  fasten the recovery, wound debridement is necessary in  cases of excess dead tissue.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Decubitus Ulcers and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Deflected Nasal Septum:  
Deflected Nasal Septum: Our nose is divided into two compartment or cavities by a wall or septum called Nasal septum; when this septum is shifted or deviated from Medline the disorder is called deflected or deviated nasal septum. It is very common disorder.

Causes are external trauma to nose, pressure from one side like nasal polyps which push septum to other side, it can se a result of birth injury, and sometimes it arises without ay reason , in this case  it is called idiopathic. 

Symptoms: It can be asymptomatic for long periods but when deviation is marked, it causes respiratory difficulty and cosmetic disfigurement of nose and most of the people who are facing this problem come to a doctor because of external deformity.

It can also cause nasal bleed due to laceration or injury of nasal mucosa by projected bony part of the septum, other symptoms are snoring or  louse breathing  sound during sleep, sleep apnea, nasal or facial pain and headache; all these symptoms are due to sinusitis.  Sinusitis develops due to obstruction of sinus openings, which open into the nose.

Diagnosis: X-rays of skull, breathing tests, usually make Diagnosis, sometimes external deformity is so marked that it becomes the clue for diagnosis, examination of nose helps and shows narrow nasal cavity on one side and compensatory hypertrophy on the other side.


Treatment: Treatment is usually symptomatic which is according to symptoms and  if deviation is marked causing severe respiratory difficulty and cosmetic deformity then it must be treated by surgery called SMR or submucoperichondrial resection, in which surgeon brings the deviated septum back  to its normal position.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Deflected Nasal Septum and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Delerium:  
Delerium: Delirium is an acute mental state of confusion, disorientation, and drowsiness; agitation, excitability can also be present. It is a syndrome consisting of two or more symptoms but not a diseases, it is present in many physical diseases of brain, it last for days or weeks but not for months or more period.

Delirium is common in patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units; causes for delirium are some brain injuries or trauma, brain disease like stroke, infections, drug abuse or withdrawal, poisons, and toxic gases, surgery and metabolic derangements.

Symptoms of delirium are might be related to hypo activity or hyperactivity, hospitalized Patients should be observed in this state closely because they can dislodge the breathing support machines, can disconnect IV lines, or remove the  NG  tubes or catheters.

Diagnosis of delirium is based on clinical observation along with investigations for detecting primary disease. List of tests are done like liver function and kidney profiles, electrolyte levels, arterial blood gases, x-ray, CT and MRI scans of brain, drug levels.

Treatment is supportive with treatment of underlying cause. Patient should be kept safe and all unnecessary equipment is removed from patients surroundings, sedatives and antipsychotic agents are used to control the patientís behavior.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Delerium and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Delivery Of Child Steps:  
Delivery Of Child Steps: Baby is delivered in three steps through the motherís birth canal. Delivery is accomplished by rhythmic contraction and relaxation of uterine walls, which pushes baby out of birth canal.

The steps are under control of hormones released by brain and uterus and other genital organs like cervix. Uterus or womb of mother is balloon like flexible or stretchable sac with muscular walls. It has lower part, which resembles pear, it is an elongated structure called cervix, cervix has opening or mouth at lower end called cervical os, which is tightly closed before initiation of labor, bellow cervix there is another elongated tube called vagina, which opens outside at introitus.

First stage of delivery of child begins with start of regular uterine contraction or labor pains. this stage last till full opening or ripening of cervix, cervix becomes thin , more stretchable and shorter in size, with progressive reopening and dilatation of cervix babyís head comes down ward.

Second stage of labor
starts from full dilatation of cervix to delivery of child, now starts a third stage which ends at expulsion of placenta from vagina; placenta is  a structure which attaches baby to motherís uterus , it is fleshy with lots of blood vessels and associated membranes. Placental expulsion is sign that whole procedure of child birth has been completed.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Delivery Of Child Steps and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dengue:  
Dengue: Dengue fever is a viral infection, caused by dengue virus and transmitted through bite of infected mosquito. This infection is common in tropical areas where mosquito breed is high in bushy areas. Infected person develop high grade fever, body ach, fatigue with low platelet counts and in severe condition bleeding from nose,rectum and other body areas. prevention involves avoidance of mosquitoes, use of repellents, lotions,cutting of bushes from endemic areas and protective clothing. Treatment include controlling fever and aches by analgesics and antipathetic, intravenous fluids with multivitamins, and blood transfusion in case of bleeding. This page, we are going to discuss about Dengue and dengue symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Depression:  
Depression: Depression is common disorder and is described as feeling of sadness, loneliness, loss of well being, sometimes anger, fear and frustration. It is often associated with loss of appetite or overeating, lack of sleep or excessive sleep and desires to be isolated.

Depression can be primary or clinical depression  due to some psychiatric disorder or it can be secondary to other causes like some emotional insult or incident like extreme poverty, war, some natural disaster, divorce, death of beloved, love breakup, failure in examination, loss of job, or due to  excessive work, it also develops as a side effects of some drugs like steroids, anti hypertensive, or due to chronic disease like cancers.

Depression is sometime normal response of our reflexes to excessive physical and emotional exertion. Depression can be mild or episodic or it can be severe to attempt self inflicted trauma or suicide. Genetic factor also play a major role in severe depression, family history of psychiatric illness or suicidal tendency are related with depressed patients.

Diagnosis of depression is dependent on thorough complete history. It is functional disorder so investigations are not usually required. Family history and history of drug abuse are very important. Blood tests are sometime necessary to detect causes like chronic disease and levels of drugs. Best option is counseling and psychotherapy, patients are usually referred to psychiatrist after exclusion of  organic causes, antidepressants and low dose sedatives are effective in treating this disorder.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Depression and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Depression:  
Depression: In this page, we are going to discuss about Depression and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dermatitis Herpetiformis:  
Dermatitis Herpetiformis: It is an autoimmune disorder often related to celiac diseases and other autoimmune disorders like thyroid dysfunction. It is known as dermatitis herpetiformis because lesions are typically related to herpes virus infection. It is induced or aggravated by gluten rich diet, gluten is a protein present in wheat and diets rich in gluten are bread flours, cakes, donuts, cookies, some non-wheat products also contain gluten like some sauces and spices. This diseases starts as discoloration of skin then itchy papules develop progressing to blisters filled with fluid, these blisters come and go and result in brown or paler discoloration of skin.

 Most of the times symptoms of celiac disease is also present like abdominal pain, loose motion, and malabsorption, weight loss and fatigue. Diagnosis of this disease is made by skin biopsy and immunological tests, which shows increased; levels of Ig A antibodies. Gluten free diet dramatically shows resolution of lesions.

Treatment is done by gluten free diet, which continues for life and anti biotic. Antibiotic greatly reduce the symptoms and have been used successfully in treatment. Patients also respond to treatment of underlying autoimmune disorders. Treating this disorders automatically resolve the skin lesions.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Dermatitis Herpetiformis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dermatomyositis:  
Dermatomyositis: It is disease which involve skin and muscles simultaneously, it can occur at any age but children and adults are most affected. It could be a response to previous viral infection, autoimmune process or presence of cancers, in children calcium is deposit in skin and muscles.

Onset is sudden or may be gradual over weeks comprising of red scaly rash on skin especially on knuckles, hands, face, chest and arms with itching and swelling. Muscles become week and painful, patient become partially paralyzed and cannot walk, raise hands or climb stairs or stand from suiting position, there is difficulty in swallowing, other body organs may be involved like kidney, heart, lungs and joints.

There could be rhabdomyolysis; which is breakdown of muscle proteins and resulting secondary kidney failure because these muscle proteins are secreted through kidneys and excreted by urine. When excessive in amounts they block kidney tubules resulting in kidney failure. There could be signs of undiagnosed cancer.

It is diagnose by muscle and skin biopsy, serology or measuring antibody level in blood and EMG studies; (EMG is graphical record of muscle activity like ECG). Treatment includes systemic steroids and chemotherapeutic agents. Tumors when removed automatically resolve the condition. Physiotherapy is very important in muscle weakness and paralysis.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Dermatomyositis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dermatoses Of Pregnancy:  
Dermatoses Of Pregnancy: These are group of skin diseases, which are developed or aggravated during pregnancy due to physiological hormonal changes.

Some are harmless and some can cause risk of damage to baby and abortion or premature delivery. Most common diseases are; atopic eruption of pregnancy, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, eczema and psoriasis, pruritic uricarial dermatitisís , pemphigoid gestational is and  dermatitis associated with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Risk factors are family history of atrophy or allergic tendency, obesity, previous liver disorder, gestational diabetes and multiple gestations like twins and triplets. Symptoms are itching, excoriations due to scratching, papules, pustules and plaques.

Skin gets dry, sometime blisters develop filled with fluid, in cholestasis, jaundice is associated with itching, theses skin lesions are common in arms, legs and back.  Face and neck can also be affected.

Diagnosis is done by history, examination and liver function tests, liver enzymes and bile acids are elevated , blood tests show increased number of basophiles or allergic cells.

Treatment is done by use of topical moisturizers and soothing lotions, anti allergic drugs for itching, in severe cases local steroids creams are used. Hygiene should be maintained by daily bath with mild soaps. Drugs for binding bile acids are used in cholestasis. Fresh juices should be used and fatty foods are avoided in liver associated dermatosis.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Dermatoses Of Pregnancy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diabetes:  
Diabetes: It is defined as elevated sugar levels in blood.

It is of two basic types

Type1: Which can occur at any age and is due to decreased or no production of insulin in body. It is genetic disease and tends to run in families.

Type 2: Usually occurs in old age group and usually secondary to obesity, stress and other metabolic causes, in this type there is insulin resistance which means insulin is present but is not able to do its function due to lack of  response of its receptors  which are  present on organs  or other factors.

Insulin is a hormone which regulates blood sugar levels and prevents high blood sugar levels and is produced by pancreases.  Pancreas is small leaf shaped organ present beneath the stomach, helps in fat and protein digestion, and secretes many enzymes including insulin.

Symptoms: Diabetic patients have increased thirst, increased frequency of urination, tendency to develop urinary tract infections and other infection, decreased sensation in extremities like fingers and toes, weakness, dehydration, and weight loss.

Diabetes can lead to many complications like heart diseases, kidney failure, early cataracts and decreased vision, gangrene or diabetic foot so it should be diagnosed and treated promptly.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by checking blood sugar levels both in fasting state and randomly before and after meals.

The tests are called FBS and RBS respectively. HB A1C is another test, which detects chronic levels of sugar in blood. In chronic diabetics, it is elevated.

Treatment: There is no proper treatment but both oral medication and inject able insulin are used to control the sugar levels. Patients are advised to take sugar free diet.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Diabetes  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diabetes Eye Disease:  
Diabetes Eye Disease: Diabetes eye diseases are group of diseases involving eyes due to chronic high blood sugar levels. It can occur in both type1 and type2 diabetes due to inadequate treatment and uncontrolled blood sugar levels.

These diseases include early cataracts, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.  In cataract lens of eye becomes opaque or cloudy and cause blurred vision. Glaucoma is raised fluid pressure of eyeball, resulting eye edema and optic nerve damage.

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition in which  retinal blood vessels undergo many pathological changes, resulting in retinal damage, retina is part of the eye which  receives light rays and  connect to brain by optic disc and responsible for vision. Diabetic eye diseases, if not controlled promptly can lead to severe vision loss mad even blindness.

Macula is central part of eye responsible for sharp central vision. Progressive retinopathy can result in macular edema and macular degeneration.

Symptoms: Symptoms appear very late when damage already occurred so patients with diabetes should get their eye examination done on yearly basis or earlier if blood sugar remains uncontrolled. Symptoms are blurred vision, dark floating spots in front of eye, decreased visual acuity, constant headache, in case of cataract lens becomes opaque, and white yellow spots appear in center of eyeball. Diagnosis: It is done by slit lamp examination and dilated eye examination; retinopathy may be detected by angiography of eye vessels.

Tonometry is method to measure the fluid pressure in eyeball and used to detect glaucoma.

Treatment: Early stages of retinopathy requires only control of blood sugar levels to prevent disease progression, macular edema, glaucoma and cataract can be treated with laser or formal eye surgeries.  Glaucoma is treated by pressure lowering drugs, which should be advised by an eye specialist.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Diabetes Eye Disease and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2:  
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: It is a metabolic disorder in which body cells   do not respond to insulin, which is hormone, needed to decrease the blood sugar levels and cause its storage is different organs. This condition is called incline resistance.

Number of factors contributes to type2 diabetes including genetics, obesity, lack of exercise,   carbohydrate and diets containing high sugar, stress and some metabolic diseases.

Diabetes is dangerous disorder leading to many complications like heart disease, kidney failure, loss of vision, increased rates of skin infections and gangrene leading to amputations.

Symptoms: There are three typical symptoms, which are present in this disease; these are increased thirst, increased urination, and increased hunger.

Although obesity is causative factor but later, patients can also be thin, with weakness and fatigue. Recurrent skin and respiratory infections are present.

Diagnosis: Diabetes is diagnosed mainly by detecting fasting blood sugar levels, patient is asked, not to eat anything for 12 hrs and then its sugar levels is checked. Fasting blood sugar level > 120 mg percentage is diagnostic of diabetes.

Diabetes status is checked also by random blood sugar level which is greater then> 200 mg% in type2 diabetics, there are some other tests also which detect the progress of disease like HbA1c ratio which is if  > 6.5 % , indicates bed control of sugar level.

Treatment: Type 2 diabetes is treated by life style modifications like sugar free diet, exercise along with oral drugs, which lower the sugar levels in blood. Complicated cases with poor sugar control need insulin therapy.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Diabetes Mellitus Type 2  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis:  
Diabetic Ketoacidosis: It is life-threatening complication of diabetes and is a medical emergency. It usually occurs in type 1 diabetes but can also occur in type 2  patients. It is due to the insulin deficiency leading to release pf large amounts of sugar in blood by liver and conversion of fatty acids to ketone bodies, which are highly acidic and turn PH of blood to acidic resulting in devastating symptoms.

All these events are prevented and controlled by insulin, which is deprived in diabetics.

Causes: Non-compliance of insulin dependent diabetics, pregnancy, different infections like UTIs, respiratory tract infections, heart attack, stroke, overuse of alcohol or cocaine are usual initiating risk factors.

Symptoms: There is increased thirst, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and increased urination, patient has deep rapid breathing, increased pulse and low blood pressure. Sometimes, patient presents with confusion, unconsciousness and coma.

Diagnosis: High blood sugar levels, increased blood, and urinary ketones are diagnostic of this condition.

Treatment: Patient is immediately shifted to intensive care unit, correction of blood sugar levels is required by giving large amounts of intravenous insulin, and dehydration is corrected with fluid replacement along with other symptomatic treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about diabetic ketoacidosis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diabetic Neuropathy:  
Diabetic Neuropathy: It is group of diseases or symptoms, which occur due to nerve damage in diabetic patients secondary to high levels of blood and intracellular sugar. High levels of suger causes some micro vascular and macro vascular changes in vessels, which supply the nerve ending to different organs resulting in symptoms. All types of nerves including cranial nerves and nerves of autonomic system are damaged.

Autonomic nerves are those nerves, which supply the organs which are not under control of our own selves like heart, digestive tract, lungs, and other organs.

Symptoms: There is tingling, and abnormal sensation on skin especially of hands and feet. There is sharp pricking pain in different parts and loss of sensation resulting in loss of feeling of any injury and resulting superimposed infection.

Ulcers are formed in feet and hands and can sometimes lead to gangrene with uncontrolled infection and necrosis. These symptoms when occur in feet create a very serious condition called Diabetic foot needing amputation or removal of foot with disability.

Vertigo, dizziness, postural hypo tension and episodes of fainting are also present.

Diagnosis: There are no specific tests for diagnosing this condition, history and examination is needed to make the diagnoses.

Treatment: It is done through symptomatic treatment and strict control of blood sugar levels is necessary to prevent the disability and discomfort. Diabetic patients need specials care of their feet because these are most commonly affected. Patients are not allowed to cut their own nails.

They should be advised to walk always with sleepers to prevent any injury  and maintain their personal hygiene; they should have physical therapy and massage to increase the circulation to peripheral parts.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Diabetic Neuropathy  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Digoxin:  
Digoxin: Digoxin is a drug used to treat congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and other heart problems. These are cardiac glycosides and derived from plant, accidental poisoning is common due to overdose in elderly and children, it is also used for suicidal and homicidal purposes, and accidental exposure of plants containing these glycosides can also cause poisoning. In known cardiac patients decreased potassium levels, dehydration and renal failure predisposes patient to dioxin toxicity.

Symptoms: Poisoning may be acute or chronic. Patient develops drowsiness, fatigue, confusion, headache, abnormal sensations and pain in distribution of nerves, blurred vision and loss of color vision.

Cardiac symptoms are low blood pressure, palpitation, bradycardia or decreased heart rate and swelling of lower limbs. Gastrointestinal symptoms are present and include nausea vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss and decreased appetite in case of chronic poisoning.

Diagnosis: Serum digoxin levels are diagnostic of toxicity. On blood tests there is hypokalemia or decreased potassium levels in acute cases and hyperkalemia or increased potassium levels in case of chronic poisoning, hypomagnesmia is also present. ECG shows arrhythmias or loss of normal rhythm.

Treatment: Discontinuation of drug is required immediately. Cardio respiratory support with oxygen, IV fluid replacement and ventilator support is very helpful in reverting patientís condition. Correction of electrolyte imbalance is necessary. Toxicity can be prevented by adjusting the digoxin dose in patients with dehydration, renal compromise and elderly people.

In this page, we are going to discuss about digoxin and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Disease Of The Ear:  
Disease Of The Ear: Ear is very important organ of body and any disorder related to this organ can result in discomfort and disability. Any ear disease needs prompt diagnosis and treatment because even a minor injury to this delicate organ can lead to severe complications like hearing loss, meningitis and even blindness.

Common ear problems are ear blockage, earache, swimmer's ear, perforated eardrum, and otitis externa and otits media. Any kind of disease can result in deafness which is mainly of two types, Conductive deafness and Sensorineural deafness.conductive deafness occurs when  sounds can not reach to main inner auditory system because of defect in sound conductive pathway, like some mechanical blockage by wax or other foreign body, inflammation or mass like polyp.

Swimmer's ear is common fungal infection in swimmers. Sensor neural deafness occurs when problem arises in cochlea, which is auditory apparatus in inner ear or damage to auditory nerve. Earaches are usually due to foreign body, wax or infection, blockage mostly occurs due to wax.

Perforated drums results from injury or trauma to head or due to infections. Perforated drum heals by its own but some times surgery is required to repair it. otitis externa is inflammation of external ear by infection usually fungal infections, trauma  from scratching.  Symptoms are usually watery discharge, pain and itching. 

Treatment depends on cause, antibiotic and antifungal drugs are prescribed. If otitis  externa is not properly treated it can lead to otitis media or inflammation of middle ear. Symptoms of otitis media are earache, headache, fever, pussy discharge and temporary hearing loss but it can cause permanent hearing loss in case of complications. sensor neural deafness occurs as a part of aging process, injury to head specially skull fractures, chronic exposure to loud noise, certain drugs i.e. antibiotics  in high doses, infectious like mumps and meningitis.

Deafness is also inherited and some people are born deaf, neonates can get hearing loss due to birth injury. Treatment for sensorineural deafness is hearing aids and cochlear transplants.

In this page, we are going to discuss about disease of the ear and types of disease of the ear, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Disease Of The Nose:  
Disease Of The Nose: Nose plays important function and  major organ for respiration,  and not only  transmits breathed ear inside the internal respiratory organs but also does very important function of detecting smell, small hairs  on internal surface of nose trap foreign particles and prevent their entry into respiratory passages. It also functions as drainage pathway for tears from eyes.

Nose consists of bony part and cartilaginous part, and a Medline wall called nasal septum, which divides nose into two halves or cavities each, called nasal cavity.

Common nasal diseases include rhinitis or watery nose, nasal obstruction or blockage in case of foreign bodies or polyps, deviated nasal septum, or DNS, nasal bleed or epistaxis.

Rhinitis can be caused by variety of infections but viral infections are most common like   common flu. it consists of watery discharge from nose, along with some respiratory difficulty if discharge is thick and mucoid.

Impaction of foreign bodies like screws, button or stones; commonly seen in children who impact these objects accidentally while playing, it results in partial or complete cessation of breathing and is medical emergency, child should be kept in position with head downwards for gravitational removal of the object as first aid measure to prevent further sniffing the object inside trachea and bronchi.

Sometimes mechanical removal of object is necessary to prevent complication .polyps are very common and cause respiratory difficulty, bleeding and nasal pain, nasal polyp can be removed by cautery or surgery. Deviated nasal septum is a condition in which central part or wall of the nose is deviated to one side resulting in cosmetic deformity and respiratory difficulty.

It is usually corrected by surgery. Nasal bleed can be due to brain injury or fracture of skull, high blood pressure or any direct blow to nose, bleeding can also occur in case of polyps and scratching of nose by some object. High blood pressure is most common cause of epistaxis; application of ice packs to upper nasal surface and nasal packing with sterile gauze sufficiently control the nasal bleed.

In short, nose is very delicate organ and any disease should need prompt diagnosis and treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about disease of the nose and types of disease of the nose, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diseases Of Children:  
Diseases Of Children: In this page, we are going to discuss about Diseases Of Children and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diseases of Oral Cavity and Pharynx:  
Diseases of Oral Cavity and Pharynx: This group include a variety of diseases which occur in mouth and its different parts like lips, tongue, , gums, and teeth. it is usually secondary to other illnesses or indicates some internal  disease in body. Oral thrush or Candidiasis is caused by fungus Candida albicans, usually occurs in children and immuno  compromised persons and consists of oral ulcers which are painful.  Herpes labialis  consists of white  painful patches or pa pules on lips and mouth which occur due to herpes virus type 1, its is transmitted through close contact of infected person.Glossitis is inflammation of tongue,cause is mainly bad oral hygiene and vitamin B 12 deficiency,  smoking and beetle and pan chewing. Gingivitis is inflammation of gums secondary to iron and vitamin deficiency especially vit. C  and  may be secondary to dental disease, in all these condition good oral hygiene and good diet plays a role in prevention. In  this page, we are going to discuss about diseases of oral cavity and pharynx and such as thrush, herpes labialis, recurrent ulceration, oral white patches,  gingivitis,  elongation of the uvula,  glossitis and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diseases Of The Eye:  
Diseases Of Eye: There are group of diseases, which are included in this group and affects various parts of eye. Most common is Conjunctivitis, which is inflammation of conjunctiva, a thin membrane that covers the eyeball except cornea. Causes are allergies, infections, physical irritants etc. Patient develops watery eye, discharge, photophobia, pain in eye, and redness in eye Variety of organisms cause infection like bacteria, viruses. Treatment includes eye drops, and ointments depending on type of conjunctivitis, rest to eye, wearing eyeglasses to avoid sun light. Opacities in eye or cataract could be congenital or acquired. There is whitish yellow patch on lens, which decreases eyesight. Treatment is surgery and most of people get relief and maintain eyesight after operation. Another condition is Glaucoma in which pressure of eyeball increases with its concomitant complication like pain in eye, severe disability of vision. Treatment is again surgical procedures to maintain normal pressure of eye. In this page, we are going to discuss about diseases of the eye, such as contusion of the eye, conjunctivitis, epidemic eye sore, ophthalmic neonatorum, membranous conjunctivitis, follicular conjunctivitis, trachoma, opacity of the cornea, non-suppurative keratitis, glaucoma and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Disorders Of Pregnancy:  
Disorders Of Pregnancy: In this page, we are going to discuss about Disorders Of Pregnancy  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Diverticulitis:  
Diverticulitis: Diverticulitis is a condition in which large intestine develops inflamed bulging pouches. The condition of having these pouches is called diverticulitis, when these pouches are infected or inflamed by obstruction or impaction of feces, diverticulitis develop.

Exact cause of its development is unknown but increased intra luminal pressure is a major factor. Lack of dietary fiber in diet results in decreased motility of  gut and formation of hard stools, when person attempts to strain on passing these hard stools  intra luminal pressure of large intestine increased  resulting in formation of these pouches.

Symptoms: There is pain on left lower part of abdomen, fever, chills vomiting and constipation will be present, sometimes diarrhea occurs.

This condition may present with symptoms of complications as if gut may perforate resulting in peritonitis. Peritonitis presents with fever, chills ,vomiting and very pain full abdomen, rectal bleeding can occur but that is rare, abscess can be formed  with high grade fever and chills and localized swelling on abdomen, Diverticulitis also can cause fistula formation  between organs, most common site for fistula formation is bladder resulting in severe urinary tract infection.

Diagnosis: ultrasound and CT scan of abdomen easily do it. 

Treatment: Mild Diverticulitis can be treated with antibiotics and giving rest to intestine by keeping patient on IV   therapy and patient is not allowed to take anything by mouth. Severe cases with compilations need urgent sugary with removal of divertculae and sometimes the part or whole of the affected large intestine.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Diverticulitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Drawning:  
Drawning: Drowning is immersion in water or fluid of a person which results in respiratory difficulty secondary to cessation of gaseous exchange.

Drowning is one of the leading causes of death especially in developing countries due to lack of trained people in resuscitation, lack of watching towers and life guards around sea side and other picnic points.

Most of the people does not know how to swim and they can not save their as well as otherís lives in case of any disaster or accident. Downing causes the fluid usually water to enter into airways which causes oxygen deficiency by hindering normal respiration and lung edema, brain is first organ which is affected by oxygen deprivation and patients get drowsy or unconscious, before this  brain sends impulses to different organs for rescue and person tries to move limbs and tries to get out of water, respiration initially becomes faster and then decline, cardiac arrest occurs with loss of blood supply to different organs and death occurs.

Dead body becomes floppy and enlarged enormously with disfigurement due to edema and usually person does not remain identifiable due to loss of normal facial features, body become cyanosed and skin bruises develop.

Drowning can also occur accidentally in industrial setup where people get submerged in pool of oils or solvents; this is more dangerous then water drowning because of toxic effects of these substances in body.

First step in management of drowning is to remove the patient from under the water and carry him or her to ground, next step is CRP or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, squeeze chest to get water or fluid out of lungs, mouth to mouth breathing and cardiac pumping or massage is done to improve respiration and circulation, patient should immediately be shifted to hospital for further treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Drawning and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Drug Induced Rashes:  
Drug Induced Rashes: Rashes produced after use of drugs are common with many over the counter and prescribed drugs. most common drugs which cause rashes as their side effects are antibiotics, non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticonvulsants and anti depressants and  many chemotherapeutic drugs. Drug induced rashes may be mild and does not cause any harm  and resolve after discontinuation of drugs  but sometimes series allergic  and life threatening reactions occur involving major organs along with rashes so these must be diagnosed and treat promptly.

Causes: In response to drug antigens  immune mediated  reaction occurs and antibodies are formed which form immune complexes, these immune complexes deposit  in skin tissue and  damage skin cells, these complexes can also be deposited in other tissues and cause their damage.

Symptoms: Rashes  are most commonly in form of  small red, flat macules or slightly  raised  papules, rashes may take the form of blisters, purpurae  or in form of wheels, flares or hives; these can be infected to form pustules and boils, thee is intense itching and scratching  leads to skin abrasions which can be infected and bleed. In severe cases patient can go in shock and renal and multiple organ failure.

Diagnosis: It can be easily made by history and examination; severe cases need immunological tests, blood tests and skin biopsy to diagnose the condition.

Treatment:
  Drug induced rashes resolve after some time on discontinuation of drug or adjusting the dose, local emollients and soothing creams are useful to relieve discomfort, anti allergic drugs are effectible in  itching  and cause sedation,  topical steroids  are sometime used but should not be used frequently and in mild cases, superimposed infection require antibiotics.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Drug Induced Rashes and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dysentery:  
Dysentery: Dysentery is small intestinal infection and results in painful blood containing diarrhea in small amounts, it is of two types, amoebic dysentery caused by Entamoebae hystolytica  and, bacterial dysentery caused by a bacterium, Shillelagh. patient get infected by faeco-oral route, by drinking contaminated water, by eating food prepared by infected person, and not washing hands properly after toilet use. treatment include antibiotics in case of bacterial  and antithetical in case of amoebic dysentery along with fluid replacement either orally or intravenously. In this page, we are going to discuss about Dysentery and types of dysentery, causes of dysentery, diet, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding:  
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: It is short form of dysfunctional uterine bleeding , it is abnormal heavy bleeding for long periods other then normal menstrual bleeding, its cause is unknown but hormonal disturbances is  most common etiology, any abnormal bleeding is labeled as dysfunctional uterine bleeding when no identifiable physical or organic cause is detected. It is usually common in old age, in peri menopausal years.

Symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding often with blood clots, occurs frequently with small gaps or continuously, anemia manifesting as pale eyes and skin, shortness of breath and swelling of body.  Irritability and anxiety, weakness, bone pain, pain in lower abdomen is also common.

Diagnostic D&C is done to exclude hypertrophy or increased growth of endometrial tissues or any growth. Other tests are ultrasound, blood tests to evaluate hormonal abnormalities, iron and hemoglobin deficiency.

Treatment is hormonal therapy, iron and multivitamins supplements in mild cases.  If severe bleeding is occurring with blood and iron loss and cause much discomfort in daily activities then removal of uterus is indicated.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Dysmenorrhea:  
Dysmenorrhea: Excessive pain during menstruation is called dysmenorrhea. It can be primary or secondary. Primary dysmennorhea has no identifiable cause, secondary dysmenorrhea points toward some underlying disease of female reproductive system like infections as occurs in pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, and tumors of uterus.

Intrauterine contraceptive devices can cause pain during menstruation and hormonal disorders as well account for majority of cases, general risk factors are family history, poor diet, stressful lifestyles, patient complaints of pain of varying intensity, it could be vague but episodic, constant dull, or very severe pulsating or throbbing in nature, women can have sweating, nausea, vomiting, headache and vertigo along with pain. Pain during menstruation is also sometimes associated with heavy bleeding. Dysmenorrhea is diagnosed mainly on history. Pelvic ultrasound detects infections or tumors or misplaced intrauterine device.

General measures like hot packs applied to pelvis and lower abdomen and taking some hot beverage like tea, coffee, or warm milk can give discomfort, pain killers are given for pain, some times in  severe pain  strong  inject able  pain killers are used. Treatment of underlying disease is necessary in secondary cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Dysmenorrhea Ovary Syndrome  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ear Wax:  
Ear Wax: Ear wax also called cerumen is normal secretion of outer layer of ear, when in normal amounts it protects ear from trauma and lubricates the inner surface of ear and trap the dust and other particles from air and prevent their entry in to inner ear, but if secreted in excessive amounts it can cause occlusion or blockage of conducting system of ear.

Common symptoms of earwax are earache, tinnitus or ringing in ear, dizziness or vertigo and it can cause hearing impairment also. Earwax is common in people using hearing aids, those using ear plugs, people who insert ear picks and cotton wicks inside the ear to clean the ears and in children. Ear wax secretion increases in anxiety   and stress.

Earwax is a waxy yellowish substance and many people can feel inside the ear and remove it by themselves by cotton swabs and ear picks, which physically dislodge the wax from the ear, but these are not effective and they push earwax more inside the ear and only remove the portion of it. Most effective methods for removing earwax are lubrication and by syringing, different oils can easily do lubrication at home, once wax is lubricated it becomes soft and easily can come out from ears.

Other method is ear irrigation or ear syringing which  is done by doctor  in this method solution is used to clean the ear through  a spray  or syringe and keeping the ear in gravitational position to remove the wax, it should be done in expert hands otherwise ear can be damaged.

In this page, we are going to discuss about ear wax and types of ear wax, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ectopic Pregnancy:  
Ectopic Pregnancy: Pregnancy occurring in abnormal sites other then uterus is called ectopic pregnancy, most common site for ectopic pregnancy is fallopian tubes especially dilated part called ampoule, less common sites are ovary, cervix and abdominal cavity, ectopic pregnancy does not progress to full tern.

Usually it terminates by spontaneous expulsion of conception products; it is called tubal abortion, or result in rupture of tube due to mechanical pressure of developing baby.

Fortunately, symptoms appear before rupture so it can be detected earlier but many times, it ruptures causing severe intra abdominal bleeding, shock and death, ectopic pregnancy is a medical emergency and should be diagnosed and treated actively.

Symptoms are pain in lower abdomen, vaginal bleeding, and absence of menstruation with pregnancy test positive. Nausea and vomiting of early pregnancy are present.

Abdomen is tender to touch, when it ruptures patients come with symptoms of shock like bleeding, distended abdomen, and low blood pressure, rapid pulse, sweating and fainting, in suspected cases emergency ultrasound should be done.

Levels of pregnancy hormone called Beta HCG are higher then in normal pregnancy and confirmative, in normal pregnancy beta, HCG is elevated but levels are less then in ectopic cases. If diagnosed before rupture it can be treated with a drug, which cause fallopian tubes to contract and expel the products of conception, if ruptured or site is other then tubes then emergency operation called laparatomy is indicated to remove it surgically.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Ectopic Pregnancy incidence, prevealence, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Eczema:  
Eczema: It is chronic inflammation of skin and usually due to genetic and environmental factors. There are so many types of eczema, some are hereditary, other are allergic types in which patientís skin is allergic to different environmental allergens like dust, pollens, foods, cosmetics, soaps, detergents, and metal jeweler etc. stress is also a contributing factor in development of eczema.

This condition has remitting and relapsing course, symptoms increases in severity, then there is short period of relief, and then recurrence occur especially in extreme temperatures. Sometimes patient has continuous period of inflammation. Eczema is common in infancy and childhood although it is found in adults also in 20% cases.

Symptoms: Patient has dry scaly skin with itching, and associated inflammation comprising of redness, swelling, and discomfort. Due to scratching lesions become infected, then  skin thickening, crusting  scabbing  and scaling occur, sometimes skin  blisters develop which cause oozing.

Often other allergic problems are also present like allergic flue and asthma, sometimes-patchy lesions are found, this form is common in adults, in another type lesions appear on legs due to impaired circulation, these lesions are itchy, red brown in color with associated edema or swelling of legs, It is common in middle aged and old people.

Diagnosis: History and examination are important in diagnosing eczema, usually family history of asthma and other allergic conditions are present in close relatives. In extreme chronic cases, skin biopsy is done to reach diagnosis.

Treatment: Eczema is treated by anti allergic and topical corticosteroid creams, skin is kept moisturized by petroleum-based creams, emollients, in case of extreme itching sedatives are given in severe chronic cases systemic steroids, and immune suppressive drugs have to be given. In case of infection antibiotics should be given. To prevent eczema skin should be moisturized, frequent bathing and known allergens should be avoided, and patient should live in cool environment with air conditioners and air humidifiers, avoid extreme temperatures, and try to avoid both physical and emotional stress.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Eczema and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Electric Shock:  
Electric Shock: Exposure of high energy waves in form of current or in case of lightening resulting in tissue destruction and cardio respiratory failure is called electric shock. Electric shock occurs often due to accidental exposure  of high voltage current, like occupational exposure as electricians, plumbers, household workers, people exposed to lightening in heavy rains or falls in mountainous areas, exposure to  fallen high tension wires in rainy season in urban areas.

Degree and depth of damage depends upon the strength of current; sometimes low intensity current only pushes the person with force and after defects are there like weakness, numbness, redness or pain in affected area or mild burns on skin at the site of exposure, this happens while doing work with household items like iron, refrigerator and other electronic devices, high voltage electric currents cause ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest and cause sudden death. Brain is also rapidly affected resulting in unconsciousness and neuropathy if person survived, local exposure can cause third degree burns with tissue loss, paralysis and even loss of affected part like limb.

Diagnosis is obvious by history and examination. In case of ventricular fibrilalation immediate defibrillation is required, with adequate hydration by iv fluids, sedatives to relieve fear and panic, and pain killers for pain, skin burns require general burn management like local antiseptic and pain killer ointments, removal of dead tissue, in case of third degree burn with superimposed infection some time amputation or cutting of affected part is required. In mild cases of neuropathy and paralysis multivitamins and physiotherapy is require

In this page, we are going to discuss about Electric Shock and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Encephalitis:  
Encephalitis: Encephalitis is inflammation of brain cells by various causes, most common cause is infection with viruses, bacteria and fungi, viruses include polio virus, measles virus, and rabies and herpes virus.

Bacterial encephalitis is caused by tuberculosis by spread of organism to brain and syphilis, bacterial can directly invade by injuries, trauma and accidents, malaria can also cause severe encephalitis in children, fungal encephalitis is common in immune compromised patients like AIDS. Autoimmune disorders and tumors can also cause encephalitis along with liver and kidney diseases.

Symptoms are fever, drowsiness, altered state of mind, fits or convulsion, tremors or jerky movements of limbs, unconsciousness and coma. In children irritability, poor feeding, drowsiness and fits are common. Among various causes, bacterial meningitis is most dangerous.

Various tests are done to diagnose it like lumbar puncture in which brain fluid is drained from spinal cord and sent for examination and culture for identifying organism. Blood tests show increased white cells and presence of antibodies. X-ray skull, CT and MRI scans are most confirmation tools for diagnosis.

Treatment is supportive with intensive care, oxygen supplementation, artificial ventilation, control of infection by antibiotics, antiviral and antifungal drugs. Primary treatment of liver and kidney disease improves the condition, in case of fractures and injuries emergency surgery has to be planned to prevent further complication.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Encephalitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Endocarditis:  
Endocarditis: Endocarditis is inflammation of innermost layer of heart called endocardium, endocarditis mostly involves heart valves which are extensions of endocardium.

Endocarditis is of two major types, infective or non-infective, infective endocarditic is due to infection of damaged or prosthetic valves, birth defects involving valves, damaged heart valves are prone to infection by bacteria, viruses or fungi.

Most common cause  of damaged valves is childhood infection  called rheumatic fever, rheumatic fever results in rheumatic heart disease, rheumatic fever is bacterial infection which causes acute throat infection but organism can also cause repeated infection of valves and cause their damage,  infective endocarditis is also developed due to other causes like autoimmune disorders, hypercoagulable states like pregnancy, and  cancers.

Symptoms of endocarditis are weakness, fever, cough, difficulty in breathing, pale skin, purple or blue spots on skin due to internal bleeding, endocarditis can cause heart failure in complicated cases and cause chest pain, cool skin, swelling in body, low blood pressure and syncope or loss of consciousness.

Endocarditis is diagnosed by Chest X ray, Echocardiography, CT scan of chest and blood cultures though cultures could be negative. Endocarditis requires long-term intravenous antibiotic treatment, damaged heart valves need surgery.

Rheumatic heart disease, which is common cause, can be prevented by childhood vaccination and prompt treatment of rheumatic fever in children.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Endocarditis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Endometriosis:  
Endometriosis: It is defined as  growth of normal endometrial tissue in abnormal sites like ovary,  pelvic areas, bladder, rectum, colon, and  abdominal cavity including its lining, uterine endometrium undergo cyclical changes, it grows, shades during menstruation and re grows again, same mechanism occurs in abnormal sites. Exact cause of endometriosis is not known but some theories suggest that it is a result of backward menstrual flow toward pelvis. Risk factors for endometriosis are genetic defects, infertility and blockage of vagina by imperforate hymen.

Symptoms of endometriosis are pain in pelvis and lower abdomen, pain during menstruation and intercourse, painful urination, vaginal bleeding and infertility. Endometriosis is diagnosed by pelvic examination by laparoscopy in which an instrument is inserted through hole in abdomen and pelvic structures are directly visual led for endometrial deposits, other methods are CT, MRI and ultrasound scans.

Biopsy is often taken during laparoscopy. Mild cases are only treated with pain killers, hormonal therapy. Abnormal deposits of tissues are removed by open surgery or laparotomy. Infertility treatment is adopted if woman is of child bearing age and wants to be pregnant. In older age groups hysterectomy is done in which uterus is removed along with removal of entopic tissue fr om abnormal sites.

In this page, we are going to discuss about endometriosis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Enlargement Of Spleen:  
Enlargement Of Spleen: Spleen is small sized organ present on left side of abdomen beneath the ribs. It is the size of an orange and not felt by hands in normal conditions. It becomes palpable when it enlarges in size, this condition is called splenomagaly.

Enlarged spleen is vulnerable to rupture by Sharpe edges of ribs and results in life threatening bleeding and other complications.

Causes: There are hundreds of causes of spleen enlargement. Different infections like viral, bacterial and parasitic infections result in enlargement, it can enlarge in different blood cancers like leukemia, lymphomas and melanomas. it can enlarge secondary to  blockage of its venous supply as in, portal vein hypertension secondary to cirrhosis of liver, portal vein thrombosis and  congestive heart failure, Different red blood cell diseases in which red blood cells are of abnormal shape and size as occurs in sickle cell anemia  can  also cause enlarged spleen. 

Symptoms: Enlarged spleen is itself a symptom; usually sump toms of underlying disease are present. Fatigue, anemia, bleeding from different parts of body, rib pain, left sided abdominal pain, irritation of diaphragm results in left shoulder pain, if spleen ruptures then abdominal pain and bloating is present and patient goes in state of shock with low blood pressure, rapid pulse and cold clammy skin. Diagnosis:  Enlarged spleen is palpable by hands on abdominal examination. Ultrasound abdomen and CT and MRI scams are absolute tools to diagnose it.

Treatment:  Antibiotics, radiation, do it and chemotherapy depending on the cause, huge spleen vulnerable to rupture is surgically removed.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Enlargement Of Spleen  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Epilepsy:  
Epilepsy: Epilepsy is chronic recurring disorder comprising of onset of seizures or fits due to abnormal excessive, neuronal activity of brain, seizures are more common in infants and children but  also prevalent in adults. 

Epilepsy is difficult to treat; it is only controlled by medications but seizures can recur at any time so safety measures should be adopted in these patients to avoid any physical injury like tongue biting, injury from falls, aspiration and suffocation.

Causes of epilepsy include birth trauma, hypoxic injury during pregnancy and during birth, congenital anomalies, high fever, infections, brain trauma, inflammations, tumors, stroke, metabolic disorders and side effects of drugs.

Epilepsy is of different types, some time it so associated with loss of consciousness, sudden fainting, frothing from mouth, rolled eyes, fits can involve whole body or only parts of limbs, patients usually get conscious after the attack. Great care should be taken during the attack to prevent tongue biting and asphyxiation from rolled tongue and blockage of respiratory passage.

Diagnosis of epilepsy is made by clinical history examination, CT, MRI scans, and EEG of brain, EEG is graphical recording of brain activity or impulses. It shows abnormal patterns in epilepsy.

Main treatment for epilepsy is anticonvulsant drugs or muscle relaxants, most of the patients respond to these drugs along with supportive treatment like oxygen supplementation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Epilepsy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Erythema Multiforme:  
Erythema Multiforme: It is disorder of skin comprising of an allergic reaction secondary to infection or drugs. It typically affects young children and adults. There are two types of this disease; one is minor form, which is mild and self-limiting, it often recurs, the other major form is also called Stevens Johnson syndrome, which can be lethal and can cause death.

Exact cause of this disorder is unknown but some researches postulates that it is immune mediated attack of skin blood vessels in response to viral, fungal and drug antigens. Antibodies formed against skin can also cross react with other organís antigens producing more generalized symptoms.

Causes: Most common cause is herpes simplex infection, which is a viral infection; other causes are some fungi and bacteria. Drugs, which cause erythema multiform, include some antibiotics, sedatives and anti epileptic drugs.

Symptoms: Patient develops typical rash with pale center and red hello around it called Bullís eye lesions, with severe itching located on upper body, these lesions can be stimulated by mild abrasions or even tight clothing in susceptible individuals, in major type there could be fever, general malaise, joint pain, mouth ulcers.

Red eyes with itching, burning, and discharge or watering are present, disease has relapsing course and can recur again, this condition  can be complicated with superimposed infection of skin lesions, with scarring, sepsis, shock and  inflammation of various organs in chronic cases.

Diagnosis: Typical skin lesions with history of drug intake or previous infection can be diagnostic, skin biopsy confirms the diagnosis.

Treatment:
Mild cases are self-limited and require no treatment. However, chronic cases require anti allergic drugs, and sometimes local and systemic steroids. More severe Steven Johnson syndrome requires hospitalization in burn or intensive care unit where intravenous steroids and immunoglobulin are given with supportive treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about erythema multiforme and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Erythroderma:  
Erythroderma: It is an inflammatory skin condition, which involves extensively the whole body skin approximately 90% or above skin area may be involved.

Erythroderma may be primary or secondary, primary erythroderma occurs in association with a skin cancer called cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and patients have no skin disease before. Secondary type occurs due to drug reaction or aggravation of preexisting skin diseases like eczema, psoriasis and lchen planus etc. sometimes this condition occurs in immune compromised states of body like

AIDS

Symptoms: Patient has widespread diffuse rash with scaling and itching. Surrounding skin looks red due to inflammation and over all people looks plethoric or have red skin that is why it is also called red man syndrome.  Patients scratch their skin in response to itching and it results in excoriations or abrasions, which can be infected causing pussy lesions.

Diagnosis: History of drug intake or previous skin disease  are usually present, examination reveals the specific pattern of skin involvement, sometimes  blood tests  are also helping, eosinophils are raised , sometimes immunological studies are done which shows elevated antibody levels.

Treatment: Treatment is done by the elimination of cause. Suspected drugs should be withheld after doctorís suggestion. Skin diseases, which are causing condition, should be managed actively. Local anti allergic and antiseptic creams give much relief. Systemic anti allergic and sedative drugs are used to minimize itching. in cutaneous T cell lymphoma; supportive therapy is given along with primary treatment of tumor.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Erythroderma and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Erythroderma:  
Erythroderma: In this page, we are going to discuss about Erythroderma and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Essential Tremors:  
Essential Tremors: Essential tremors are shaky movements of arms , legs, tongue, jaw and other parts of body, they are not under control of patientís will and subside on rest and during sleep, this is slowly progressive disorder and  exact cause is unknown but  usually inherited and occur  as  a consequences of some factors like excess alcohol intake, some toxins, some brain diseases like parkinsonism, these are more common in men.

Any age can be affected but usually become more common after 40ís and 50ís. Due to essential tremors person cannot do normal activities like writing, typing, eating and combing, life quality is greatly and badly affected by the disorder and patient becomes nervous, anxious and embarrassed due to problem.

Diagnosis of essential tremors is made by patientís history and examination. No blood tests are required. If they are mild and not disturbing patientís daily routine they can be left untreated but if they get severe and patient can not resume important works like job or personal care or hygiene; then treatment is necessary, variety of drugs are used including anticoagulant  and anti epileptic drugs, along with physical rehabilitation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Essential Tremors and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ethylene Glycol:  
Ethylene Glycol: Ethylene glycol is a chemical present in many common household products like cosmetics, detergents and paints. It is accidentally ingested or swallowed because it has no color, taste and smell and can cause severe poisoning and even organ failure. It can also be used for suicidal attempts.

Symptoms: Nausea, vomiting, convulsions or fits develop progressing to confusion, agitation, restlessness and coma. Ethylene glycol causes severe metabolic acidosis or increased PH of blood with resulting sequel like shock, organ failure and death.

Liver, kidney, lungs and brain all commonly damaged resulting in their failures if poisoning is not promptly treated.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by combination of tests like measuring ethylene glycol levels in blood and urine, metabolic acidosis on blood teats, increased urinary ketone bodies and disturbance of kidney function tests.

Treatment:
It is done by emergency gastric lavage or ingestion of activated charcoal to prevent further absorption if poisoning is acute, metabolic acidosis should immediately be corrected. In severe cases with renal compromise hemo dialysis is the treatment of choice.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Ethylene Glycol and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis:  
Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis: Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is also called hypersensitivity pneumonia, it is an exaggerated  response of lune alveoli to external allergens or antigens. Antigens are usually organic dust particles and usually associated with exposure in specific occupational settings.  Fungus and moulds,  are also  strong agents which are responsible for reaction of lung alveoli. Most common types are farmer' lung  and bird breeders lung. Farmer's lung is caused by dust from mouldy hay, straw and grains  and  bird breeders are affected by chronic exposure to bird feathers  and  droppings. This type of alveolitis is also caused by bacteria and fungi present in humidifiers, air conditioners and heaters. It is of three form1. Acute . 2. sub acute  and 3. chronic. In  acute form there are abrupt development of symptoms like fever,chills,cough and  malaise, in sub acute forms symptoms appear in intermittent pattern and with passage of time if patient is not treated and exposure is not decreased, disease progresses to chronic state comprising of severe shortness of breath, fatigue, chronic cough, weight loss  and decreased appetite. Diagnosis can be made by chest x ray, certain blood tests like ESR and  lung biopsy. Diseases can be prevented and its progression can be limited by removal of causative allergen even sometimes patients are asked to change their job. Cessation or limitation of exposure is the most effective measure to prevent the disease.  In this page, we are going to discuss about Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis and types of Extrinsic Allergic Alveolitis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Fallotís Tetralogy:  
Fallot's Tetralogy: It is a congenital heart disease; tetra refers to four types of defects present in heart in combination, these are pulmonary stenosis, overriding aorta, ventricular septal defects and right ventricular hypertrophy.

These four abnormalities are interrelated and ultimately results in shunting of blood directly from right side of heart to left side without being oxygenated by lungs, this results in supply of deoxygenated blood to body and cyanosis, cyanosis is blue discoloration of body with shorten of breath usually due to deoxygenated blood.

Tetra logy of Fallot either present at birth or develop later in life during infancy ( infancy is one year period after birth), if present at birth it cause blue baby syndrome, children if survived develop poor growth, mental retardation, poor feeding, shortness  of breath on exertion, clubbing of fingers and spoon shaped nails.

Sometime attacks of cyanosis and syncope occur in which child has sudden episode of oxygen deprivation, becomes pale and blue and gets unconscious. Best tool for diagnosis is Echocardiography; the defect can also be detected in mother's uterus before birth. On clinical examinations heart murmurs are heard which can be very loud enough to be heard without stethoscope.

Drugs can be used to control mild cases; attacks require emergency treatment involving oxygen supplementation, and vasodilator drugs. Accurate cure is through surgery which should be done by expert pediatric surgeon.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Fallot's Tetralogy  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Fertilization Of Egg:  
Fertilization Of Egg: In this page, we are going to discuss about Fertilization Of Egg and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
First Aid:  
First Aid: In this page, we are going to discuss about First Aid and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Flatulence:  
Flatulence: Passage of excessive foul smelling gases by an individual is defined as flatulence. Mixture of gases produced is called flatus.

Normally person passes gas  5 to 8 times a day  on an average exceeding in some to 18 times but if it occurs repeatedly with abdominal bloating or fullness or pain it becomes a medical disorder and can sometime  be due to underlying diseases. 

In fact producing gas is healthy phenomenon and shows healthy digestive system. Gas is produced in intestine by enzymatic action of intestinal bacteria on undigested food like starch, and other carbohydrates. Normal gases present in flatus are hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and sometimes methane. Foul smell is produced when sulphur-containing gases are present in flatus.

Causes: chronic dyspepsia is major cause of flatulence. Certain mal absorption syndromes can also cause flatulence. Swallowing of inspired air is another cause of flatulence as occurs in mouth breathing, broken teeth etc. Some foods are known to produce excessive gas like beans, cabbages, onions, and pulses, spinach etc. Commonly vegetables and fruits produce more gases then meat.

Lactose intolerance is another cause of flatulence .in this disorder lactose, which is complex sugar, can not be digested due to lack of an enzyme Lactase, undigested sugar reaches the large intestine and broken down by bacteria producing gas.

Treatment: It is not a major threat to health but sometimes embarrassing, discomforting, and only needs treatment when some underlying cause is there and when other associated symptoms are there like bloating and abdominal cramps.

Patients are advised to avoid foods, which produce flatulence, walking after taking meals, drinking lot of water and good eating habits greatly relieve the symptoms of chronic dyspepsia. In lactose intolerance dairy products like milk has to be avoided.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Flatulence and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Flatulent Colic :  
Flatulent Colic: Spasmodic pain produced due to gaseous distention or indigestion is called flatulent colic.

This type of pain produced because of accumulation of gases in intestinal tract, which are not be able to escape or expelled very little in amount resulting in cramps and distention of abdomen. Causes: Indigestion and immobility are two major factors for its production.

Indigestion leads to enzymatic breakdown of undigested particles and production of gases. Immobility in major illness, or due to sedentary lifestyles or after major surgeries can also lead to this condition. Certain foods like cabbages, beans, pulses and dairy products lead to excess gas production and distention leading to abdominal pain.

Some obstruction in intestinal tract can lead to this condition.  Sometimes constipation causes impacted feces in intestine and stucked gases behind them produce distention and pain.

Symptoms: Patient has severe contracting pain in episodes,  constipation is  usually  present, abdomen is distended, there is pressure on chest and  patient often complaints of chest pain or heart burn.

Diagnosis: It is based on history and examination. Usually abdomen is distended patient gives the history of unable to pass gas. X ray or ultrasound abdomen reveals obvious gaseous shadows. Treatment:  Usually this type of pain relieves with carminative mixtures and muscle relaxant drugs.

Sometimes enema or glycerin suppositories kept per rectum resolves the problem. Mobilization is very important in these patients and greatly helps in expelling gases and relieving pain. Some herbal remedies are also effective like mint juice can be beneficial in digestion and relieves pain.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Flatulent Colic and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Folate Deficiency Anemia:  
Folate Deficiency Anemia: It is a kind of anemia caused by lack of a vitamin called folic acid in body.  Folic acid is present in green leafy vegetables in handsome amount. Over cooked food, malabsorption syndromes, some liver disorders, and dietary deficiency can lead to this condition. Patients develop weakness, headache, and weight loss, lack of appetite,  palpitation, and shortness of breath. It is very common in pregnant women and if not treated can lead to severe congenital malformations in newborn babies like brain and spinal cord defects because this vitamin is essential for neonateís brain and spinal cord development. In this page, we are going to discuss about Foliate Deficiency and types of Folate Deficiency Anemia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Foot And Heal:  
Foot And Heal: Foot and heel pain are common complaints due to variety of causes , most common causes are flat foot, wearing high heeled  sandals and tight shoes especially in women, arthritis like osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis and gout, nail infections and ingrown nails, claw toe  and hammer toe are tow conditions in which big toes become claw or hammer like due to joint abnormality and stiffness, it is also due to use of  tight shoes, excessive walking and running can also lead to foot and heel pain, inflammation of any structure  present in feet cam cause pain like muscles, tendons and bones, trauma and injury are also cause of pain; feet are sensitive parts of body and they carry  the whole weight of body along with legs so obesity  can also lead to excessive strain on these structures and cause pain. Diagnosis is made by history, examination and x-rays.

Treatment of pain in these regins is done by pain killers, adequate rest and stretching exercises. Reducing weight, physiotherapy and local massage with muscle relaxants and pain killers also help to great extent in relieving discomfort and pain. Some devices are available like foot pads and braces which can give relief in flat foot and heel pain, shoes should be comfortable and excessive walking and high heels should be avoided in order to prevent this type of pain.

In this page, we are going to discuss about foot and heal and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Fracture:  
Fracture: Fracture is break in normal continuity of bone. Bones fractures are either traumatic or pathological, traumatic fractures are due to any trauma, injury, road traffic accidents or falls.

Pathological fractures are those which occur due to break in weakened bones secondary to some diseases like osteomalacia in children and osteoporosis in adults, bone tumors can also cause fractures.

Bone fractures cause severe pain, deformity and restriction of movement, overlying skin becomes hot, tender and red. Most of the times fractures ate associated with external injuries like cuts, abrasions or wounds over surface. Some time compound or complex fractures cause the muscles to torn or tear due to disrupted bone fragments, skull fractures and rib fractures can cause serious complications due to brain and lung injury.

Pathological fractures are more common in women and old people while traumatic fractures occur mostly in young boys or males in case of road traffic accidents. Diagnosis of fracture is simple and easy to make by X rays, CT and MRI scans are needed in skull, ribs and pelvic bone fractures to see associated organ damage. Fractures require time to heal; healing depends on nutritional status, age and health of patient and location of fractures.

High calcium and iron rich diet helps fast recovery, immobilization with braces, splints, elastic bandages, casts and plasters is necessary to reunite the bones and avoid their mal union. Diabetics and anemic people take more time for their fractures to heal and are more prone to complications like infections, delayed healing, non union or mal union. Great care has to be taking because any negligence in treatment results in permanent deformity and loss of function especially in children. In severe complicated fractures; surgery is needed which is done by orthopedic surgeon.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Fracture and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Fracture Of Femur:  
Fracture Of Femur: Fracture of femoral bone is most common fracture in orthopedic practice.

Femur is a thigh bone which enables us to stand and move, femoral bone is connected to pelvis at hip joint. femur has three parts head, neck and shaft, head of femur is rounded ball like structure which fits into the socket of pelvic bone to form hip joint, neck is immediate portion bellow the head, usually head and neck fractures are included in fracture of hip joint, Shaft is the long stick like portion of the femoral bone and also is vulnerable to traumatic and pathological fractures.

Femoral bone fractures are common in accidents, falls, and sports injuries and in children. Femoral fractures involving head and neck are common in old people due to weakened bones like in osteoporosis.

Symptoms of femoral fractures are intense pain, swelling over leg, red hot tender skin and inability to stand or move the leg; systemic signs are also present due to trauma like fever, malaise and body pain.

Sometimes mild fractures can be present without obvious external signs. Fractures may be simple hair line or linear fractures which are breaks along the transverse section of bone or they may be butterfly fractures casing bone to break into many pieces like the wings of a butterfly.

Diagnosis can bed easily made by X ray of thigh bone sand pelvis. X ray gives detail about the location and type of fracture but good quality film should be taken with clear picture because this is very sensitive part and any malpractice can permanently disable or cause external deformity particularly in children.

Fractures require traction along with plasters braces and casts to stabilize the fractured bone along with pain killer, calcium rich diet and rest; femoral fractures take time to heal so patients are provided with crunches or have to be on wheel chairs for couple of months.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Fracture Of Femur and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Fracture Of Spinal Column:  
Fracture Of Spinal Column: Spinal column fractures mostly result from road traffic accident, falls, trauma and gun shot injuries. Mostly cervical and lumbar regions are affected but thoracic vertebrae or bones at middle of back can also be affected. Backbone fractures if extensive can cause severe neurological deficit ranging from weakness or paralysis of arms or legs to loss of bladder and bowel control.

Spinal fractures can also result from spinal cord tumors or osteoporosis, these types of fractures are compression fractures and caused by break in already weakened bone by the disease process, these types of fractures are pathological fractures and occur in old aged people. Spinal fractures can severely damage the spinal cord or compress the spinal nerves. symptoms  depend on level of spinal cord involved; pain in neck, back, numbness or loss of sensation in arms or lower limbs, weakness, abnormal sensations like pricking and needles, problems in sexual act like  loss of penile erection in males, urinary  and fecal continence can occur.

People can be permanently disabled or paralyzed if not treated properly and timely. Sudden death can occurs if bone is fractured at higher level at the junction of skull and spinal cord due to damage to nerve trunk which is responsible for breathing and heart functions. Same well known radiological studies are done after giving basic life support to patient like x rays, CT and MRI scans. Spinal fractures can be treated by conservative management if not complicated; like pain killers, anti inflammatory drugs, calcium and vitamin supplements and application of support to align the bone fragments together, usually cervical collars, splints, braces and abdominal belts are used to reduce mobility, patients are advised to have strict bed rest. Severe cases require orthopedic surgical reduction of fracture.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Fracture Of Spinal Column and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Fulminant Hepatic Failure:  
Fulminant Hepatic Failure: Fulminant hepatic failure is an acute liver failure developed in previously normal person or in a person with compensated or stable liver diseases. It comprises of rapid onset of jaundice, coagulation or clotting defects and encephalopathy within 8 weeks of development of other symptoms.

Due to many etiological factors liver stops functioning and stops producing proteins like albumin, antibodies and clotting factors and unable to detoxify harmful substances; as a result toxic substances like ammonia enters brain through blood and cause encephalopathy , encephalopathy is damage of brain cells resulting in brain edema, intra cerebral bleeding and compression of brain cells.

Causes: Most common causes are toxins and drugs like alcohol abuse, acetaminophen or paracetamol poisoning, mushroom poisoning, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, viral hepatitis especially hepatitis B and hepatitis E, metabolic disorders like Wilsonís diseases in which abnormal amounts of  copper accumulates in liver, Reye syndrome in children which is associated with aspirin use in viral illness of chicken pox..

Symptoms: Patient initially develops sudden jaundice, vomiting, malaise, bleeding in different areas of body, infections, abdominal swelling or ascites, renal failure, electrolyte imbalances, cardiovascular dysfunction.

Diagnosis: thorough history and examination are required to diagnose it;  increased prothrombin time with INR ratio of > 1.5 with altered consciousness is confirmative of diagnosis.

Treatment: Toxicity poisoning requires antidote use to neutralize them. Otherwise treatment is mainly supportive with hospitalization in intensive care unit and correction of coagulopaththy, electrolyte imbalances, preventing renal and cardiovascular compromise, and laxative use to prevent brain injury and coma. Although these are only supportive measures and condition is fatal if decision of liver transplant is not taken promptly.

In this page, we are going to discuss about fulminant hepatic failure and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Furunculosis And Eczema:  
Furunculosis And Eczema: Frunculosis or common boil is painful pus filled skin lesion; commonly there is white or yellow colored point in the middle of the boil, which is an opening which drains pus spontaneously or has to be drained. Causative organism is staphylococcus   aureus, which is bacterium usually present on skin.
   
Risk factors are scratching of skin in case of some skin diseases like eczema or scabies, already ill person who have low immunity and people with poor nutrition, direct contact with infected person or sharing personal use objects of infected person like towels and clothes, certain skin areas which are sweaty like face armpits, buttocks are prone to development of boils.

Most of the boils heal by themselves but some become complicated resulting in more pus filled larger lesions called carbuncle with many openings; there is area of increased redness or erythema around the lesion and this is highly tender.

Drainage is necessary in these cases to drain the pus, which can result in tissue destruction, and scarring .antibiotics should be given to eradicate the infection, local application of antiseptic ointment is necessary with pressure bandage.

Application of warmth or hot fomentation gives much relief from pain. Painkillers must be given to reduce pain and restlessness. Prevention includes proper hand washing with antiseptic solution, don't scratch the skin if another skin conditions causing itching are present, moreover anti allergic drugs should given to these patients to avoid scratching, avoid contact with infected persons and their objects, daily bath and personal hygiene are good habits; and key factors for prevention.

Eczema: Eczema is a group of skin inflammatory conditions and are of genetic origin. In eczema, normal skin barrier mechanisms are not present, along with some gene defects, which cause inflammation of skin.

Most common form is atopic dermatitis; in this condition person has genetic tendency to develop skin inflammation against various external stimuli or allergen is like clothing, cosmetics, perfumes, jewelry, soaps and detergents, sudden changes in temperature or even emotional stress.

 It tends to run in families and other allergic conditions are present, like asthma; in close relatives. It is more common in children but can also occur in adults .girls are more affected then boys ,eczema usually appears as red, dry,  scaly and  itchy lesions; itching is very trouble some. 

Lesions also depend on type of eczema, usually face, scalp, legs, neck, elbows and knees are involved, and in children, it mostly involves the facial area. There is no treatment for eczema but both medication and limitation or cessations of exposure are major preventive measures.

Skin should be hydrated with application of moisturizers, avoid tight clothing especially in warm humid climates, and avoid contacts with known allergens. Usually eczema is a benign and can be preventable and treatable but sometimes it can cause complications like superimposed bacterial infections. Therefore, treatment should be taken at early stage.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Furunculosis And Eczema and types of Furunculosis And Eczema, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gall Bladder:  
Gall Bladder: Gallbladder is small pear shaped organ present under the liver on right side of upper abdomen. It is connected to liver through a small tube called cystic duct. Cystic duct enters in bile duct and they merge to form another tube called common bile duct, which releases bile in duodenum.

Duodenum is first part of small intestine. Bile is green colored solution, which digests fats. Liver produces bile. Main function of gall bladder is storage of bile and concentration of bile with bile salts and acids. Gall bladder is lined internally by  an epithelium, above epithelium there is layer of connective tissue and  above this  there  is  muscular layer which contracts  gall bladder and expels bile from it, out side gallbladder is covered by peritoneum.

In humans, gallbladder is prone to accumulation of stones and inflammation; stones develop in gall bladder when its duct is blocked by some obstruction or inflammation. Because of obstruction, bile, which is stored in gall bladder, cannot escape out of it and concentrates to form stones. Stones in turn result in inflammation of its lining resulting in pain in right upper abdomen, vomiting and indigestion. Inflammation of gallbladder also results rarely from tumor also.

Gallstones and its inflammation also result in jaundice, usually gallstones and inflammation are indication of surgery and gall bladder is removed surgically. Removal of gall bladder in humans does not alter the normal functioning of liver and does not have any effect on health.

In this page, we are going to discuss about gall bladder  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gall Bladder Carcinoma:  
Gall Bladder Carcinoma: Cancer of gall bladder is usually secondary to chronic cholecystitis or familial in origin, familial means thee is genetic tendency to develop in certain individuals, although it is not that common malignancy of intestine.

Females are more prone to gall bladder cancer Symptoms: Patient has loss of weight, loss of appetite; chronic dull pain in right upper quadrant of abdomen, Jaundice, fats malansorption and abdominal bloating, there could be ascites or collection of fluid in abdominal wall.

Gall bladder duct is obliterated by tumor then severe jaundice is present. Sometimes cancer is spread to other areas like liver, lungs and other organs manifesting symptoms of involved organ like shortness of breath, enlargement of lymph glands.

Diagnosis: Carcinoma is usually diagnosed on CT or MRI scan, ultrasound abdomen is less specific, certain tumor markers are elevated if patient has cancer gall bladder, one of these tumor markers is CEA. Chest x ray is useful for detecting metastasis. 

Treatment: it is done by removal of tumor with gall bladder and chemotherapy and radiotherapy depending on extent and grade of carcinoma.

In this page, we are going to discuss about gall bladder carcinoma and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gall Stones:  
Gall Stones: Stones in gall bladder are of two basic types; Pigment stones and cholesterol stones. Gall bladder is an organ, which stores bile salts and concentrates it with bile salts and bile acids before its release in duodenum.

Pigment stones usually develop due to obstruction of bile flow from gallbladder, or excessive production pf billirubin in hemolytic conditions.

Exact etiology of cholesterol stones is not known, but they may be associated with high fat diet, obesity and usually common in women. Gallstones lead to acute and chronic inflammation of gall bladder.

Symptoms: Patient has episodic crampy pain in right upper quadrant of abdomen or constant dull pain in epigastrium , nausea and  vomiting, indigestion, fever , general malaise , fatigue , and loss of appetite is also present , sometimes jaundice is also present 

Diagnosis: Gall stones appear on abdominal ultrasound or CT or MRI scan. Billirubin levels will be elevated on liver function tests.

Treatment: Gall stones are indication of surgical removal of gall bladder. Patients are kept on antibiotics before and after surgery and advised to take low fat diet.

In this page, we are going to discuss about gall stones and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Garmi Ka Ilaj:  
Heat (Garmi Aur Os Ka Ilaj):  Normal body temperature of human body ranges from  97F OR 36C  to 99F or 37.2C. Oral temperature is somewhat lower then rectal or vaginal temperature and skin temperature in turn  is slightly lower then oral temperature. Normal human body temperature can have a  fluctuation of about 1 degree. A person can have lower temperature in morning and higher temperature in afternoon and evening. Any illness which occurs due to  excessive heat is called heat illness. Heat illnesses are common in athletes  and people working in hot environments. Common illnesses are heat cramps, heat stroke and heat exhaustion. Heat cramps occur in persons who do several hours of strenuous exercise, who drunk large amount of hypo tonic fluid. Persons who excreted large amount of sweat in hot weather usually develop heat cramps. They usually develop pain and stiffness of leg, arm and abdominal muscles. Heat syncope also called heat  stroke usually presents with fainting when person is exposed to intense heat of sunlight. Heat exhaustion is another illness in which person develops headache, irritability, dizziness, palpitation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and heat syncope and cramps, all these problems arise when body is not acclimatized to heat. Tolerance developed in human body against intense heat after repeated bouts of exercise in hot weather is called heat acclimatization. This is of particular concern to athletes  and very useful because it reduces the chances of heat illness and reduces the severity of its  symptoms and increase work output, who excreted. In this page, we are going to discuss about heat and types of heat, heat illness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gastralgia:  
Gastralgia: Gastralgia means pain in stomach and usually occurs in epigasric region or upper left segment of abdomen where stomach is located gastralgia and abdominal pain occur due to hundreds of factors.

It could be due to infections with organisms like diarrhea,  gastric or duodenal ulcers, perforated  gastric ulcer, distention of organs due to fluid (Ascites is collection of fluid in abdominal cavity), gases or food due to overeating, constipation or blockage of intestines by inflammation, tumors etc, gall bladder stones or infections, appendicitis,  liver disorders, tumors involving any organ can causer pain, diseases of kidneys like kidney stones, hydrophones (collection of fluid in kidney), urinary tract infections, pelvic organ diseases like ovarian cyst , pelvic inflammatory diseases,  pelvic tumors, can also cause abdominal pain,  normal menstruation in women  can cause abdominal pain though it occurs in pelvic region but perceived in  abdomen.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by history and examination, ultrasound and x ray abdomen are major diagnostic tools. CT and MRI scans detect the tumors, masses or swollen lymph nodes. Sometimes endoscopy is required to detect the internal ulcer or perforation. Laparoscopy is the last resort to solve the issue.

Treatment: Treatment depends on cause. Muscle relaxants are usually prescribed because most of the pain is due to smooth muscle contraction or spasm. Drugs are given to relieve gaseous distention or enema or glycerin suppositories are given to relieve constipation, Ultrasound guided removal of fluid is very beneficial in ascites.

Patients are not given anything by mouth to rest the abdomen and its organs and intravenous nutrition is given. Hot packs applied to abdomen are effective in mild cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Gastralgia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gastric Ulcer:  
Gastric Ulcer: An ulcer is excavated area in stomach mucosa by excessive acid secretion  which is produced by stomach own cells to digest food, in normal condition this doesnít happen and stomach mucosa is resistant to digestive action of acid but certain factors destroys this barrier and acid begins to destroy stomach cells. There are two main factors, which produce gastric ulcers.

1. Long term of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, these drugs are used most commonly by arthritis patient to relieve inflammation of joints; these drugs are also given in recurrent dental pains and other inflammatory conditions.

2. Infection of gastric mucosa by helicopter pylori, which is bacterium. Smoking, coffee, tea and alcohol are aggravating factors for ulcer formation.

Symptoms: Symptoms are mild epigastric pain and burning after meals especially in empty stomach, ingestion of milk and other neutralizing foods lessen the intensity, pain and burning gets worse in night on lying down.

Sometimes nausea and vomiting are also present, in case of bleeding ulcer there is vomiting containing blood, patient passes black stools, sometimes ulcer perforates into abdominal cavity and results in serious emergency comprising of severe pain, and symptoms of shock.

Diagnosis: X ray of stomach with barium makes Diagnosis, barium is a dye, which is injected by mouth, and then X ray is taken to detect the ulcer, and dye stains the normal mucosa but not the ulcer. Another option is upper GI endoscopy. Blood testes are done to detect H. pylori antibody.

Treatment: Treatment involves giving drugs, which limit acid secretion; some drugs are designed to heal the ulcer by forming protective coating on them. Patients are advised to quit smoking and alcohol use. Use of Anti-inflammatory drugs should be reduced or alternatives are given to patients. Antibiotics are effective in most cases with H pylori infection.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Gastric Ulcer  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gastrointestinal:  
Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal infections are caused by variety of organisms like bacteria, viruses and parasites, they increase gut motility and disturb fluid and electrolyte exchange. Some bacterial infections cause inflammation of intestinal mucosa and cause symptoms.

Most infectious agents are transmitted by unhygienic habits like improper hand washing after using toilets, contaminated water and food, and use of stale canned foods. Canned food is major cause of food poisoning if food contained in it not properly stored or consumed by user. Eating fruits and vegetables without washing and over ripen stale fruits are also a cause of diarrhea.

Symptoms: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and fever are present, blood in stool is symptom of bacterial infection, and patient has general malaise, recurrent diarrhea results in loss of appetite and weight loss.

Diagnosis: diagnosis is obvious by symptoms. Stool D/R is important test to diagnose occult blood or cyst or ova of parasites. Stool culture is important to exclude bacterial causes.

Treatment: Most of GI infections are viral they need only supportive treatment  like correction of electrolyte imbalance, fluid replacement and drugs to decrease intestinal motility, antibiotics are only prescribed if cause is bacterial infection on stool culture, anti helminthes drugs are effective against parasitic and worm infestations.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Gastrointestinal and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gastrointestinal Syndrome:  
Gastrointestinal Syndrome: This is one of the syndromes which occur in patients who are exposed acutely to ionizing radiation. Radiations cause damage to tissues by depositing large amount of energy in cells resulting in destruction of cells; moreover they cause large variety of chemical and physiological changes. This syndrome is caused by  radiation exposure of 50 rays or more on most or all of the body, patient develop nausea, vomiting and diarrhea ;as a result of diarrhea  dehydration and electrolyte imbalance occurs which can cause severe problems in organ systems. Electrolytes are electrically charged particles or ions present in body and play vital functions in body; common are potassium, sodium, calcium, bicarbonate and chloride. Calcium and potassium are key ions to regulate kidney and heart  functions; as a result of diarrhea and dehydration electrolyte imbalance occur  and  hypovolumia in turn lead to kidney and heart failure which leads to death within few days. In this page, we are going to discuss about Gastrointestinal Syndrome and types of Gastrointestinal Syndrome, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gestational Diabetes:  
Gestational Diabetes: If a woman has high blood sugar levels diagnosed first time in pregnancy she is said to have gestational diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is not very dangerous condition but should be treated promptly because it can lead to various complication like large babies with resulting birth trauma or increased rates of cesarean sections, intrauterine death of baby, or still birth, decreased blood sugar levels and poor survival rate of baby after birth and increased chances of diabetes later in life in affected women. Although most women are able to regulate their blood, sugar levels during pregnancy with proper treatment.

Symptoms: Patients have increased weakness, thirst, increased urination and increased rates of urinary tract and respiratory infections, women are usually obese and have family history of diabetes or previous history of birth of large size baby or still birth.

Diagnosis: It is done by  screening test called glucose tolerance test carried out at   24th  week of pregnancy   and may be earlier in women  with  risk factors and  with  family history.

Treatment: It is done by sugar free diet, light exercise along with insulin therapy as prescribed by doctor. As a rule both gynecologist and dialectologist should be involved in treating pregnant ladies with gestational diabetes.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Gestational Diabetes and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Giant Cell Arteritis:  
Giant Cell Arteritis: It is a disease involving arteries and comprises of inflammation of external carotid artery and its branches. Mainly temporal artery and ophthalmic arteries are affected, inflammation results in swelling and accompanying occlusion or blockage of blood flow to the area supplied by that specific artery.

Temporal artery supplies the face in temporal region and ophthalmic artery supply blood to eyes. This disorder is associated some time with other disease like rheumatoid arthritis, polymayalgia rheumatic, and systemic lupus erythematosus.

Symptoms of giant cell arthritis are fever, headache, decreased hearing and ringing in ear, painful areas on face and head, pain on chewing and   blurred vision. Very dangerous outcome of this disorder is sudden loss of vision due to complete block of blood supply to ophthalmic artery.

Best method to diagnose giant cell arthritis is biopsy of temporal artery; biopsy shows presence of giant cells, which are pathological cells specific for disease, hence the name giant cell arthritis.

High-resolution MRI scan is latest technique for early detection of diseases. Eye examination is necessary to detect changes in optic disc due to obstructed blood supply. Treatment is immediate injections of high dose steroids to prevent permanent blindness.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Giant Cell Arteritis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Goiter:  
Goiter: Enlargement of thyroid gland is called goiter; it appears as swelling in front of neck. Swelling may be small or very huge causing much discomfort and cosmetic deformity.

Most common cause of goiter is iodine deficiency in endemic areas mostly people of mountainous areas are at risk for iodine deficiency and development of goiter. Selenium deficiency cam also cause goiter.

Selenium and iodine are two minerals required to make thyroid hormones, iodine is found in seafood, dairy products, and some fruits like strawberries.

Symptoms: Goiter can produce symptoms of either hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. It appears as swelling on neck, which is not tender. There is difficulty in swallowing, and speech problem due to pressure on larynx.

Hoarseness of voice and slurred speech is present. It can cause difficulty in breathing if huge in size; there is weight loss despite of increased appetite. There could be weight gain. Either intolerance to heat or cold is present depending on cause. Weakness, fatigue and depression are also present. 

Diagnosis: Large swelling in front of neck is seen with symptoms of either hypo or hyperthyroidism.  Measurement of thyroid hormones and thyroid scan help in diagnosis.

Treatment: It depends on cause, thyroid hormones in case of hypothyroidism or anti thyroid drugs in case of hyperthyroidism. Surgery is required in case of severe symptoms and huge swelling.In this page, we are going to discuss about Goiter and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gonorrhea:  
Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea is sexually transmitted bacterial infection caused by organism Neisseria gonorrhea.There are different symptoms in men and women, abdominal pain and vaginal discharge in women, and burning during urination and urethral discharge in men. Mostly unsafe sex like oral sex is the major contributing factor.This infection is associated with major complications in both genders, like septic arthritis, and even endocarditis, and meningitis but luckily these are rare complications,it can lead to infertility secondary to pelvic inflammatory disease in women and epidydimitis and orchitis in males.Treatment include antibiotics and supportive treatment of symptoms. Prevention is through safe sex and keeping good hygiene.  In this page, we are going to discuss about gonorrhea and its types, clinical features, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Good Pastureís Syndrome:  
Good Pasture's Syndrome: It is a syndrome comprising of autoimmune attack against glomerular basement membranes (GBM) found in lungs and kidneys; it is rapidly progressive type 2 hypersensitivity reaction and results in death often without giving time for diagnosis and treatment. Genetic component is present in affected people along with some risk factors like infections, surgery or toxins.

Symptoms usually start as weakness, loss of appetite followed by shortness of breath, bloody sputum, cough, chest pain, followed alter by kidney involvement, kinetically burning urination with pus blood in urine later it readily leads to kidney failure with edema or swelling of body, high blood pressure, passing of large amounts of protein and blood in urine and cassation of urine output.

Diagnosis is done by blood testes which show anti GBM antibodies, kidney and lung biopsy confirms the diagnosis. As it is autoimmune disorder prognosis is not good because there is no cure of these diseases except supportive treatment like corticosteroids and chemotherapy both of which have many side effects. Mild cases can respond to long term steroid therapy, but severe cases require kidney transplantation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Good Pasture's Syndrome  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Goodpastureís Syndrome:  
Goodpastureís Syndrome: In this page, we are going to discuss about Goodpastureís Syndrome and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Gynaecomastic:  
Gynaecomastic: Enlargement of mammary gland  tissue or  abnormal development of breast in males is called gynecomastia, it may be of true type in which  breast glands are increased in size and number in response to hormonal stimulation or pseudo or false gynecomastia or  increase in adipose tissue or fat due to obesity. Whether the cause is physiological or pathological; it has great impact on social and psychological aspects of pateintís life.

Physiological gynecomastia is normal development of breast in males due to aging, obesity, or in athletes or weight lifters who take steroids and other drugs. Pathological gynecomastia occurs secondary to tumors of testes, pituitary glands, liver disorders, hypogonadism, it could be side effect of some drugs; hyperthyroidism and kidney failure can also cause enlarged breast beceuse of the disease process itself or drugs used to treat these disorders.

Gynecomastia is common in young boys and old people, some cases regress with age, but if persistent it is indicative of some underlying disease. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound, measurement of male hormones, and CT cam MRI and tumor markers to detect tumors, blood tests like liver function tests and urea and creatinine are measured to evaluate the causes.

Treatment options are surgical excision, liposuction, and drugs along with treating causative factors like radiation threrapy for testicular tumors, chemotherapy, adjustment of drug doses, and prohibiting use of anabolic steroids by weight lifters and bodybuilders.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Gynaecomastic and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Haematemesis:  
Haematemesis: Haematemesis is vomiting of blood.

Causes: It can be secondary to many causes. Top list causes are gastric ulcers, gastric cancers or tumors , any ulceration or varies in  esophagus (varies are abnormally dilated blood vessels), prolonged retching  can also cause tears in esophagus and cause bleeding from mouth, liver cirrhosis can also cause esophageal varies and bleeding from them, gastritis and  gastrointestinal infection with viruses, bacteria and parasites or worms are also risk factors.

It can also occur  secondary to some physical injury  like endoscopy  and passing of N/G tube which is inserted in stomach for feeding purposes, it can also be a part of some generalized diseases like thrombocytopenia secondary to viral infections or other causes.

Diagnosis and Treatment: Diagnosis is usually made by history, endoscopy and blood tests to know the amount of blood loss, it is a medical emergency. Treatment depends upon the amount of blood loss.

If blood loss is in less amount IV line is maintained to  replace body fluid, emergency endoscopy is arranged to know the cause, if esophageal varies are there immediate banding is required, patients are given drugs which block acid secretion, great care is taken to protect the airways because it can result in aspiration pneumonia.

Which can be life threatening. If blood loss is significant then immediate blood transfusion is necessary with laparoscopic surgery to directly block the bleeding.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Haematemesis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Haemoptysis:  
Haemoptysis: Spitting of blood containing sputum is called hemoptysis. It should be differentiated from pseudo hymoptysis, because in hemoptysis blood comes from lungs and other respiratory passages, Pseudo or false hemoptysis results from gum bleeding, tooth trauma or tooth infection.

Most common cause of hemoptysis in children is lower respirator tract infection or impaction of foreign body, in adults causes are bronchiectasis, pneumonia, tuberculoses, other repertory infections and lung cancers. Some blood clotting disorders also results in hymoptysis along with bleeding in other parts of body.

Hemoptysis may be mild and blood loss may be massive creating a medical emergency requiring prompt treatment, it can be acute or chronic, chronic cases are usually seen in tuberculosis. Left ventricular heart failure can also lead to pulmonary  hypertension and cause bleeding.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by thorough history and examination to know about the underlying cause, physical examination like anxiety due to bleeding, physical presence of blood on tissue paper or on handkerchief, rapid pulse, chronic cough, and weight loss, small hemorrhages on skin due to clotting disorders and shortness of breathe all points towards primary cause.

History of chronic smoking and exposure to environmental pollution are commonly present, history of some family member having tuberculosis usually present. Blood tests; to identify low hemoglobin and low red blood cell counts in case of massive bleeding are important. Chest x ray, CT and MRI scan are help full to detect infection and cancers.

Treatment: Treatment aims towards cessation and further prevention of bleeding, prevention of aspiration of blood in lungs, and treatment of underlying cause. Patient's anxiety must be relieved by counseling.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Haemoptysis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hair Loss:  
Hair Loss: In this page, we are going to discuss about Hair Loss and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Harmone Therapy:  
Harmone Therapy: In this page, we are going to discuss about Harmone Therapy  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Harnia:  
Hernia: Hernia is a sac lined by abdominal layers and contains parts of organs, blood vessels, nerves. Hernia is of many types. Most common types are inguinal hernia, and umbilical hernia.

Inguinal hernia is more common in males and appears as swelling in groin. umbilical hernia is present at central part of abdomen and is formed due to incomplete exposure of abdominal wall at this s site it is common in children, incision   hernia is another type in which abdominal wall is weakened by previous surgery and scar, it is common in women after cesarean section, another type is epigastric or hiatus hernia in which proton of stomach bulges in chest cavity due to congenital malformation or defect in diaphragm.

Symptoms: Patient complaining of swelling and pain in affected part. There is severe pain if hernia is strangulated which means blood vessels has been occluded. Hernia becomes prominent on increasing intra abdominal pressure like coughing and straining due to constipation.

Diagnosis:  It is confirm by examination and ultrasound abdomen.

Treatment: Hernia require  surgery to be corrected, abdominal belt has to be tied  after surgery for long times to avoid recurrence, constipation and chronic coughing should be treated  because these can be initiating as well as aggravating factors and cause of recurrence also.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hernia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Headaches:  
Headaches: Headache is most common symptom encountered by people. Headache can be secondary to many causes. Headaches are number one cause of discomfort in adult and middle age groups.

Headache is symptom of many underlying diseases and can be a reaction to stressful long working hours. Many theories are postulated about the development of headache, some researches state that it is due to increase pressure in brain and facial vessels and their dilation, most commonly temporal arteries which run through temples along the sides of head. Some neurotransmitters released during stress and exertion can cause the changes in blood supply and vessel caliber and diameter which cause pain.

Common causes of headache are flue, sinusitis, overexertion, excessive lights and noise, excessive heat or cold, hormonal disturbances especially in females. Brain injuries, high blood pressure, diabetes, hormonal disorders all can contribute to development of headache.

Motion sickness and migraine are major causes of headaches. Headaches are usually diagnosed on history. Severe headache with history of fall and brain trauma, as well as associated with vertigo and vomiting should be investigated.  Most headaches respond well to pain killers, bed rest, and sleep, secondary headaches require treatment of cause.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Headaches  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Heart And Its Diseases:  
Heart And Its Diseases: Heart is a muscular organ, which pumps blood to different organs and maintains life; it is under control of brain through verves and connected to different organs by network of blood vessels or channels.

Blood vessels are divided into arteries and veins, veins are vessels, which collect deoxygenated blood from parts of body and return it back to heart, arteries are vessels, which carry oxygenated blood from heart to different organs.

Heart has four chambers connected through valves and divided in to two halves by septum, heart walls are made-up of muscles, during pumping blood hearty muscles contract and squeeze blood out of heart.

During venous return heart, muscles relax and allow passage of blood in heart, heart is connected to lungs by a large vessel called pulmonary artery, deoxygenated blood from heart reaches lungs through this artery and mixed with oxygen, then this blood is pumped to body through largest vessel called aorta.

These processes are going on constantly without break and it takes milliseconds for heart to do intermittent rhythmic pumping like all other organs and structures; heart is also affected by many diseases  like  atherosclerosis, infarction, ischemia, muscular disease and infections. Some diseases are congenital like valve diseases and septal defects.

Some are acquired like thickening of vessels from accumulation of cholesterol,  pain resulting ischemia or oxygen deprivation, that is called angina, or cell death of heart muscle ending  in heart attack, some autoimmune disorders affect heart muscles resulting in myocardiopathies,  common infections are myocarditis, pericarditis, endocarditic, these are infections of muscles, outer covering of heart and valves respectively.

Heart diseases can be prevented by regular exercise, balanced diet containing low fats and salts, diets rich in omega 3 and 6 fatty acids like fish,  and  living happy stress less life, emotions and stress play a key role in promoting heart illness. Movement is sign of life and heart health is essential for life so it better to be active for healthy.

In this page, we are going to discuss about abdominal heart and its diseases and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Heart Burn:  
Heart Burn: It is subjective feeling of burning around the chest and in epigastria region, usually worsens at night, on lying down, after taking heavy spicy, acidic or fatty food. It is relieved by sitting in upright position, taking milk or neutral substance like water.

Causes: most common cause of heartburn is gastroesphageal reflux disease or GERD in which   acidic content of stomach enters the esophagus by loose opening present at the end of esophagus called esophageal sphincter.

Normally this sphincter remains in contracted or closed state and only opens when food enters stomach from esophagus, but in GERD this mechanism fails and improper shutting of this opening results in leakage of acid in esophagus causing burning sensation.

Chronic dyspepsia or indigestion also results in acid reflux resulting in heartburn. Chronic dyspepsia may be due to bad eating habits like overeating, eating too much spicy and fatty foods or infection with H. pylori which is bacterium.

Heartburn may be due to hiatus hernia in which gastric contents are leaked into chest by an abnormal opening one dangerous point is that heartburn may be the primary symptom of angina or heart attack. Angina is pain originated from heart due to decreased blood supply and alarms a person about reduced blood supply to heart musculature.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made through history and examination, endoscopy to reveal gastritis or esophageal inflammation sometimes necessary in severe condition. Heartburn due to angina may be differentiated from gastric reflux by an emergency ECG   with exercise.

Treatment: Treatment is according to the cause. usually drugs are given to inhibit acid secretion, antibiotic are prescribed for gastritis secondary to H. pylori infection, if hernia is cause, surgery is done to repair the hernia, patient should be advised to adopt healthy life style and eating habits like light exercise after dinner, or before going to bed, eating in normal amounts, avoidance of junk and spicy foods etc.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Heart Burn and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Heart Disease In Elderly :  
Heart Disease In Elderly: Most commonly found heart diseases in old people is coronary heart disease or ischemic heart disease, coronary vessels are vessels which supply blood to heart , they get thickened by atherosclerosis, thrombi, age related sclerosis. High blood pressure and diabetes are two deadly reasons for coronary heart disease in elderly. Coronary artery disease is single most common cause of myocardial infarction or heart attack.

High blood pressure produces vascular resistance which increase the work load of heart and diabetes causes micro vascular changes which both are contributory to heart disease ion elderly, lack of physical activity and chronic daily life stresses also contribute a lot to heart disease in elderly.

Angina pectoris also known as heart pain or cardiac pain is also common in elderly especially after age of 50 years and even earlier if risk factors are present, angina is again caused by narrowing of blood vessels and block of blood supply to coronary vessels, emotional and physical stress can precipitate angina in old people. Less common heart diseases are cancers, tumors involved heart or metastatic tumors from other body parts.

Infection of lungs can secondarily affect heart in old people because in old age resistance to various disease and infections is reduces and minor infections can lead to life threatening complications. Regular exercise, emotional and physical care, diet containing antioxidant and reducing stress can greatly improve quality of life and increase life expectancy in elderly.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Heart Disease In Elderly  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hemifacial Spasm:  
Hemifacial Spasm: In this page, we are going to discuss about Hemifacial Spasm and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hemiplegia:  
Hemiplegia: Hemiplegia means paralysis of one side of body including limbs. Hemiplegia   may be congenital as seen in cerebral palsy or may be acquired, among acquired causes stroke is most common cause; other causes are brain injury or brain infection, uncontrolled diabetes and blood pressure, brain tumors, meningitis, brain abscess, hematomas and other space occupying lesions.

Hemiplegia occurs opposite the site of lesion in brain means if lesion is on right side of brain, hemiplegia will be on left side and vice versa.

Symptoms of hemiplegia are inability to move one side of body, muscle spasm or rigidity or stiffness, numbness or abnormal sensation on that side, facial palsy, difficulty in speech, difficulty in walk and abnormal gait, in children hemiplegia is associated with delayed growth and development of milestones like crawling walking, smiling etc. Usually such children are mentally retarded.

Diagnosis depends on history, exanimation, and radiological studies of brain. Treatment is given according to cause like drugs to dissolve clots, antihypertensives and hypoglycemic drugs, muscle relaxants are used to control spasticity, brain lesions like tumors, abscess and hematomas require surgery. Physiotherapy, rehabilitation, and general nursing care are of key value preventing further complications of hemiplagia.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hemiplegia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hemorrhoids:  
Hemorrhoids: Hemorrhoids are abnormally dilated venous channels around the anal mucosa and skin. Hemorrhoids may be internal or external. Hemorrhoids are most common problems associated with constipation,

Causes: hemorrhoids develop due to increased pressure on anus; pressure may be because of constipation. Straining to pass hard feces is the major cause in its development, pregnancy is another cause of hemorrhoid development due to pressure of  baby on pelvis, increased intra abdominal pressure due to exercises and abdominal fullness due to indigestion, various arteriovenous malformations can result in hemorrhoids in which venous channels are abnormally dilated in different areas of body. Liver failure with portal hypertension can also result in hemorrhoids.

Symptoms: Patients give history of rectal bleeding and constipation in case of internal hemorrhoids, external hemorrhoids are more discomforting resulting in anal discomfort and pain, pain on passing stools, swelling in anal area, anal itching and leakage of stools.

Diagnosis: It is done by examination, external hemorrhoids are obvious and seen as swelling in anal area surrounding anal skin is red and inflamed, on coughing internal hemorrhoids are prolapsed outside and can be detectable. Sometimes internal examination is necessary under local anesthesia to diagnose internal hemorrhoids .

Treatment: Mild hemorrhoids causing mild pain and discomfort respond to local measures like treating constipation by high fiber diet and advise to drink a lot of water. Local antiseptic and anesthetic creams are applied to relive pain; large hemorrhoids causing severe pain and rectal bleeding require surgical correction.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hemorrhoids and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Henoch Schonlein:  
Henoch Schonlein: In this page, we are going to discuss about Henoch Schonlein and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hepatic Abscess:  
Hepatic Abscess: An abscess formed in liver is called hepatic abscess. An abscess is large collection of pus cells along with damaged or fibrosis necrotic tissue.

Hepatic abscesses are of various types. Phylogenetic abscess, fungal abscess and amoebic abscess, hepatic abscess occur because of direct dissemination of organisms from blood or occur after trauma.

It may be secondary to obstruction of bile flow due to blockage of bile duct. Amoebic abscess occurs due to chronic cases of amoebic dysentery. Fungal abscess occur after Candida infection, it usually occurs in immune compromised patients.

Liver or hepatic abscess can also be formed after surgical or invasive procedures like liver biopsy, insertion of drain in abdominal cavity. Malignancies can also result in abscess.

Usually there are multiple abscesses present. Symptoms: patient has fever, chills, general malaise, fatigue, and loss of appetite and in 25% patients jaundice is present.

There is right upper quadrant pain often radiating to shoulder. Abdomen is highly tender to touch in right upper segment.

Diagnosis: It is done by abdominal ultrasound and CT scan.

Treatment: Treatment is antibiotics and surgical or percutaneous drainage of abscess.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hepatic Abscess and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hepatic Cysts:  
Hepatic Cysts: In this page, we are going to discuss about Hepatic Cysts  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hepatitis A:  
Hepatitis A: Hepatitis A  is water born infection and  and caused by hepatitis A virus. People usually get infected by polluted water. Person who get infected develop diarrhea, watery stools and vomiting. Once it occurred in a person it can be developed again.

This infection can be prevented by giving awareness to people that proper purified water is important to health and personal hygiene is a key factor to prevent this infection. Hepatitis A is viral infection and immunity  plays a role in its course and treatment because if person's immunity is strong enough  he or she can recover easily and rapidly.

Treatment is basically supportive. In this page, we are going to discuss about Hepatitis A and its symptoms, diagnosis, prevention, vaccination and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Hepatitis B:  
Hepatitis B: Hepatitis B is a viral infection and it infects liver very badly. It is transferred from one person to another through infected body secretions which include blood saliva sweat semen and vaginal secretions. Common routes of infection are contaminated needles, unsafe sexual relationships, and unsafe blood transfusions. It is very common in intravenous drug abusers. There is no treatment of hepatitis but vaccine is available to prevent this infection and to modify the course of infection. In most people it remains undiagnosed for years and people come to know while doing screening for some other health problem. Prevention is better in this disease then treatment like safe sexual practices, using disposable and properly sterilized syringes and blood transfusions should be done after proper screening. In this page, we are going to discuss about hepatitis B and symptoms, precautions, diagnosis, diet and treatment in Urdu and roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hepatitis C:  
Hepatitis C: Hepatitis C is a viral infection in which virus infects liver and if undiagnosed it can be lethal  and untreatable in late stages. In this disease virus infects liver and cause damage to liver cells and ultimately results in liver shrinkage, due to destruction of liver cells. Patient remain asymptomatic for years and suddenly symptoms start due to liver failure.there is no treatment of Hepatitis C except liver transplantation in end stage liver disease or liver failure. in early stages if infection diagnosed  mainly  there is supportive treatment according to symptoms. In this page, we are going to discuss about Hepatitis C and its clinical features, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hepatitis D:  
Hepatitis D: Hepatitis D is an infection caused by Delta virus.Delta virus is one of the few viruses in hepatitis virus category. Hepatitis D usually infects a person who is already having Hepatitis B infection or simultaneously infects therefore it is more dangerous then Hepatitis B alone. It can lead to liver failure and even liver cancer, if not properly treated.Route of infection is usually infected needles and transfusion of  contaminated blood or blood products. treatment is usually supportive and liver transplant ion  in case of  liver failure or liver cancer. In this page, we are going to discuss about Hepatitis D and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Hepatitis E:  
Hepatitis E:Hepatitis E infection is caused by Hepatitis E virus.  This virus is very much related to Hepatitis A category.Transmission is through oro-fecal route. Domestic animals are also a source of infection.This infection is also common in pregnant women usually people have symptoms like in Hepatitis A infection which include fatigue, fever, nausea, vomiting, and even jaundice.In pregnant women a clinical syndrome develop which is called fulminate hepatic failure that's why especially pregnant women need to be aware d about this infection because it can result in pregnancy loss. No treatment is there like other hepatitis infection. Prevention is through vaccine and safe water and food and proper hygiene. In this page, we are going to discuss about m Hepatitis E and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hereditary Haemochromatosis:  
Hereditary Haemochromatosis: It is genetically transmitted disorder in which body absorbs large amount of iron. Excessive iron is stored in different organs and causes their damage and impairs their function. Organs which are susceptible to iron overload are liver, heart, reproductive organs, pancrease skin and joints.

Symptoms: Fatigue malaise, liver cirrhosis, joint pain, diabetes, hypogonadism and decreased libido in females and loss of penile erection in males, arthritic changes in   joints, pigmentation of skin resulting in its dark grey color, congestive heart failure, or arrhythmias, abnormal movements of body, patients have recurrent infection. Most commonly involved organs are liver, pancreases and skin. Symptoms of liver cirrhosis like jaundice, coagulation disorders, and portal hypertension with GI bleed like melena and black stools are present.

Diagnosis: It is done by serum ferritin and transferring levels. Ferritin is a protein produced by liver which stores most of the iron , transferring is  iron transporting protein which is present in blood , elevation of these proteins in serum are indicative of iron overload in body, liver biopsy is another method to diagnose it.  MRI scan of liver and other organs is a new noninvasive method to diagnose the condition. 

Treatment:  Treatment is serial phlebotomy and iron chelating agents. Iron chelating agents are substances, which bind iron in body and prevent its accumulation in organs. Phlebotomy is letting or wasting of blood through vein. It is followed by blood transfusion from a healthy person.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hereditary Haemochromatosis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Herpes Infection:  
Herpes Infection: Herpes infection are caused by group of viruses called Herpes virus type 1 and 2 respectively. Type 1 causes infection that consist of painful blisters on surface of mouth. It can be transmitted by direct contact from person to person like kissing, or using one another' s objects like towels. Type 2 is transmitted by sexual contact and indirect contact with infected person. In this type there are painful blisters on genital areas. Avoid direct contact with infected person and safe sex are the measures for prevention. In this page, we are going to discuss about Herpes Infection and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hiccups:  
Hiccups: Hiccup is involuntary single or repeated bouts of spasm or contraction of diaphragmatic muscles with specify sound.

Causes: Exact cause is unknown but these are usually associated with fevers, intake of carbonated beverages, over eating etc. chronic hiccups can result from many underlying problems in body like gastro esophageal reflux diseases, electrolyte imbalance, diabetes, kidney failure, brain injury or tumors, intramuscular disorders, stroke, some  head and   neck diseases can also lead to hiccups like deviated nasal septum, laryngitis and goiter which is enlargement of thyroid gland present in front of neck.

Usually phrenic and vagus nerves are involved in their pathogenesis. Some researchers believe that irritation of these cranial nerves due to any cause result in hiccups. Many social and cultural taboos are associated with hiccups especially in indo Pakistan like if a person is having hiccups; some of his or her relatives or loved ones are recalling him or her. 

Treatment: Usually hiccups are gone by their own, but sometimes they are not stopped and need some measures to relieve them as if drinking water usually gives relief from hiccups immediately. Medical treatment in necessary in chronic cases only.Usually sedatives and anti depressants is given. Sedatives are drugs, which are used to induce sleep and also relax muscles. Treatment of underlying cause is necessary like in gastric reflux diseases drugs are given to reduce acid release.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hiccups and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hirsutism:  
Hirsutism: Excessive hair growth in women in abnormal sites like chin, beard, chest and back is called hirsutism. It is male pattern growth; normally these areas are covered with hairs in males, due to elevated levels of male hormones called androgens in females, this condition develops.

Most common causes of hirsitusm are polycystic ovaries, male hormones producing tumors like ovarian tumors, hyperthyroidism, pituitary tumors, adrenal gland tumors, , some drugs like antiepileptic drugs and obesity can also cause hirsutism. Symptoms are coarse dark hairs on chin, chest, neck, hands and legs, obesity, deep hoarse voice, and increased muscle mass in females.

Diagnosis is made by checking hormonal levels. Insulin, prolactin and male hormones are elevated; ultrasound is used to detect ovarian tumors or polycystic ovarian syndrome. CT and MRI scans are done   to detect other tumors which can cause hirsutism.

Weight loss, hormonal treatment are done to decrease the hair growth, tumors require surgical excision, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, some time hirsutism is only familial without any cause, this is the cause  of social embarrassment  especially for young girls,  in this case; cosmetic measures like waxing, plucking, shaving and laser hair removal  can be done to avoid unsightly looks

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hirsutism and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
HIV Aids:  
HIV Aids: AIDS is a serious and dangerous infection caused by human immunodeficiency virus. It is transmitted primarily through sexual contact, because virus is present in vaginal and seminal secretions and blood.  HIV attacks body's immune  system by destruction of CD4 or T cells which are type of white blood cells protecting body from various infections and prevent formation of tumors. AIDS is common in homosexuals, persons with multiple sex partners, patients undergoing blood transfusions and dialysis and  iv drug abusers. Unluckily there is no cure of AIDS. Treatment goals are decreasing viral load and prevent further progression of disease. In this page, we are going to discuss about HIV AIDS history, information, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hoarseness:  
Hoarseness: Hoarseness is abnormal harsh voice of altered pitch and volume occurring in many conditions like sore throat, pharyngitis or laryngitis. Acute laryngitis is most common cause of hoarse voice. Trauma to vocal cords because of long-term voice abuse and certain allergies are also major reason for hoarse voice.

Vocal cords are two muscular bands in front of larynx, which vibrate, and produce sounds while we talk. Long-term abuse of voice is common in teachers who have to teach the children in loud voice in classrooms, it is also common in singers who use their voice for long periods of the vocal cords. Talkative persons like telemarketing agents, call center agents, or receptionists in busy offices are also prone to this condition.

Symptoms: Hoarse voice and pain in throat while talking are usual symptoms. Symptoms of underlying cause like difficulty in swallowing as in sore throat or pharyngitis are present. Lymph nodes in neck and face may be enlarged.

Diagnosis: It is made by history and examination; vocal cords are examined by flexible endoscope or laryngoscope.

Treatment: usually supportive measures are taken, rest to voice, soothing beverages like tea and coffee, steam inhalation and air humidifiers are used to relieve discomfort, warm saline gargles are also helpful, most of the cases are viral so there is no role of antibiotics here. Painkillers are advised to relieve pain.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hoarseness and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hydrocele:  
Hydrocele: Accumulation of serous clear fluid with in the inner layers of testes is called hydrocele.

Hydrocele may be small or it may cause the testes to enlarge enormously in size, hydrocele of testes can be caused by any disease which involve testes like inflammation, tumor, obstruction to flow of seminal fluid or it may be idiopathic or without any known cause.

Hydrocele is most common condition leading to testicular surgery in males. It usually affects young adults but any age can be affected. Symptoms of hydrocele is swelling in testes and scrotum may be unilateral or bilateral ,swelling  is soft and fluctuating, there is no pain, but discomfort or feeling of heaviness is present if it is large size,  lymph glands are enlarged in  groin.

Hydrocele can be easily diagnosed on physical examination, doctor in whom torchlight is focused on scrotum does Tranís illumination test, and light will be shown on other side due to transparent clear fluid inside scrotum in case of hydrocele. Pelvic ultrasound is done to confirm the diagnosis.

Hydrocele is treated by either conservative treatment, which involves drainage of fluid under local anesthesia, or if large, in amount surgery is done to remove fluid, aspiration or drainage has high recurrence rate which means hydrocele develops again; but with modern surgical techniques recurrence rates are low.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hydrocele  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hydrocephalus:  
Hydrocephalus: Accumulation of fluid within the brain ventricles and cavities is called hydrocephalus. It may be congenital or acquired. Congenital hydrocephalus is present at birth and associated with meningocele and meinngomylocele, usually these infants are died after birth due to compression of brain. Hydrocephalus can be caused by brain tumors, head injuries, hemorrhage or bleeding within brain, infections, vascular malformations, meningitis or encephalitis. Hydrocephaus may be communicating or non-obstructive, or no communicating or obstructive.

Communicative hydrocephalus is caused by impaired re-absorption of fluid or fluid overproduction, non-communicative hydrocephalus occurs as a result of obstruction or blockage to flow, it is further divided into normal pressure and elevated pressure hydrocephalus.

Symptoms in children are irritability, poor growth, and headache, decreased IQ and enlarged head. Seizure, sleepiness, loss of urination and defecation, abnormal face like spaced eyes and big head as compared to face.

In adults, it can present as vomiting, seizures, confusion, loss of memory, urinary and stool incontinence, loss of balance and abnormal gait. Diagnosis during pregnancy is made by maternal ultrasound, in adults CT and MRI scan and lumbar puncture are used to reach diagnosis.

Treatment of hydrocephalous is surgery and placement of brain shunts which drain fluid from dilated ventricles.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hydrocephalus And Coma and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hydrocyanic Acid:  
Hydrocyanic Acid: Hydrocyanic acid is extremely poisonous substance and lethal. Its metabolite is cyanide, which is toxic at cellular level and inhibits oxygen availability and consumption at cellular level resulting in death in few hours. Hydrocyanic acid is reagent in chemical laboratories and accidental poisoning occurs in employees working in labs and teaching institutes. Naturally, it is present in bitter almonds, apples and apricots seeds. It is also found in fertilizers, rodenticides or rat killers and fumigants. It inhibits cellular respiration and cause death within short period.

Symptoms:  Patient has burning sensation on involved areas, suffocation feeling with irritability and agitation, progressive dyspnea or shortness of breath and weakness. Skin develops cherry red color due to entrapment of oxygen in tissues. at lower dose headache, nausea, confusion and drowsiness is present. If spillage into eyes occurs then there will be redness of eyes, poison can absorbed from skin also.

Diagnosis: Cyanide levels can be detectable in blood. There is particular cherry red color of skin. History of exposure from family, friends and co-workers can be obtained.

Treatment: In case of local contact, wash the area with cool water. Do not treat with artificial respiration. High concentrations of oxygen have to be given with hemodynamic support.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hydrocyanic acid and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hyper Thyroidism:  
Hyper Thyroidism: Over activity of thyroid gland and subsequent increased release of thyroid hormones in blood is called hyperthyroidism.

Causes: There are many causes; most common of which is Graveís disease in which antibodies are formed which continue to stimulate thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone.

Other causes are lack of iodine in diet, pregnancy, some drugs like anti arrhythmic drugs, which regulate heartbeat, and excessive intake of iodine in various weight-loosing drugs, inflammations of thyroid gland called tyhroiditis, Goiter or tumors of thyroid and pituitary gland can all cause thyroiditis.

Symptoms: Fatigue, weakness, weight loss, diarrhea, tremors  of hands, increased heart rate , sweating, intolerance to heat, anxiety, depression,  increased thirst and appetite. There are large bulging eyes; there could be swelling in front of neck. Loss of sexual desire is present in both males and females; there are scanty menstrual periods in women. Sometimes it gets complicated resulting in irritability, cardiac arrhythmias, coma and death.

Diagnosis: It is done by measuring levels of thyroid hormones in blood .TSH levels are decreased due to inhibitory effects of thyroid hormones. T3 and T4 levels are increased in blood, which is detectable on blood tests. In autoimmune cases, antibodies are present which can be diagnosed on serology. Tumors and nodules are diagnosed by thyroid scan.

Treatment: It is done by iodine supplementation in food; anti thyroid and anti-inflammatory drugs are available which should be taken according to doctorís instructions. Radioisotope treatment is also very beneficial in which thyroid cells are destroyed by Radioisotope iodine. Nodules and tumors require surgical removal of thyroid either partial or complete. Treatment should be closely monitored because over treatment leads to hypothyroidism.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hyper thyroidism and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hyper Trophic Cardiomyopathy:  
Hyper Trophic Cardiomyopathy: It is genetic disorder and cause of sudden death in young individuals due to hypertrophy or thickening of heart muscles, as a result of thickening heart muscle can not contract properly. Main feature is left ventricular hypertrophy which is asymmetric; asymmetric means that hypertrophy does not involve the whole circumference of left ventricular wall.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could be obstructive or non obstructive, obstructive hypertrophy results from thickening at place where aorta arises, due to outflow tract thickening blood can not be escaped from left ventricle to aorta to reach body. Non obstructive arises in other areas especially at apex of left ventricle. Depending on the extent of hypertrophy, patients may be asymptomatic or symptomatic having chest pain, palpitation and episodes of fainting.

Characteristic feature of this disease is that it affects young individuals. Athletes are also prone to development of this heart disease; diagnosis is made by Echocardiography and less specifically by ECG, but heart MRI is accurate method of diagnosis. Most of the cases reach medical casualty with impending heart failure and die before treatment but screening of individuals at risk, should be done with family history of sudden death. Treatment can be done by both medical and surgical methods.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hyper Trophic Cardiomyopathy  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hyperemensis Gravidarum:  
Hyperemensis Gravidarum: Excessive  nausea and vomiting during pregnancy leading to inability to eat, dehydration and weight loss is called hyperemesis  gravidarum, it is more common in first three months of pregnancy but can continue afterwards or even before and after  delivery. Exact cause of this condition is unknown but elevated levels of hormone called Beta HCG are associated with excessive vomiting.

Genetics also play a role and most women have family history of condition, other risk factors are stress, or emotional factors like fear of not having a male baby, or fear of miscarriage also predisposes along with poor diet, iron and multi vitamins supplements taken during pregnancy, certain smells and sights.

Symptoms are nausea, vomiting, weakness, dehydration, heart burn, and weight loss, poor growth of developing baby, delayed onset of fetal movements, constipation and depression. Hyper emesis gravid arum can lead to preterm labor and low birth weight babies.

Diagnosis is made on merasurments of blood levels of beta HCG. Hyper emesis gravid arum is medical emergency and woman should be admitted for intravenous fluid  and electrolyte replacement, drugs  to stop vomiting are used in injectible forms because oral drugs does not work. Nutritional support is some times given by naso gastric tube in severe cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hyperemensis gravidarum and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypermagnesaeimia:  
Hypermagnesaeimia: In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypermagnesaeimia  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypermobile Syndrome:  
Hypermobile Syndrome: It is a group of symptoms consisting of hypermobility or increased power of stretching of joints along with pain in joints and muscles. Several factors contribute to this disorders; this is more common in females, in athletes and in sportsmen.

Increased flexibility of joints occurs due to hormonal changes in females and because of training and exercises done by the later group. Exact cause is unknown but variety of acquired and congenital structural changes are responsible like sex hormones, congenital   joint socket sizes and decreased muscle tone and week or stretched ligaments; all can contribute to increased mobility and flexibility of joint.

Symptoms are dislocation of joints, carpel tunnel syndrome, clicking sounds from joints, knee, hip or lower back pain, muscle sprains and strains, patients are tall, thin, and with flexible body, skin is thin and has stria or stretch marks.

Diagnosis is totally based on history and examination, arthralgia or pain in joints for more the 3 months in two or more joints with dislocation in one or more joints along with two or three signs or symptoms described above is criteria to make the diagnosis. Treatment is done by anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, anti depressives and sedatives along with physiotherapy and life style modifications.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hypermobile syndrome and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypernatraemia:  
Hypernatraemia: Condition of increased levels of sodium ions in blood is called hypernatremia. Hypernatremia is due to increased water loss secondary to any cause, because of water loss or dehydration sodium ions are concentrated in blood relative to water concentration and cause symptoms. This occurs in severe diarrhra, vomiting, and perspiration.

Hypernatremia can also occur secondary to ingestion of hypertonic  solutions like sea water accidentally  and  medically by giving  hypertonic solutions like sodium bicarbonate iatrogenically, (iatrogenically means any injury or harm related  to treatment  or medicine /as side effect ) in this case sodium ions are directly enter blood stream in excess amounts.

Several hormonal disorders and kidney failure can also cause hypernatremia. Sodium and other electrolyte concentrations in blood are closely related to one another and minor changes in their amounts can lead to interrelated changes in body physiology.

Sodium ionís concentration in blood is 135 to 145mE/L. symptoms of hypernatremia usually appear at levels of 158mE/L.If not treated it can lead to death within couple of hours at or above levels of 180 mE/L. Symptoms are irritability, confusion, increased thirst, neuromuscular problems like seizures, muscle twitching, abnormal sensation, if severe can lead to coma and death.

Severity is common in children and old bed ridden people who can not take water by themselves in response to thirst, in normal persons if hypernatremia occurs it is rapidly corrected by bodyís safety mechanism which includes stimulation of thirst receptors and increased intake of water which corrects hypernatremia.

Hypernatremia is diagnosed by measurement of serum electrolytes along with medical history. Kidney function tests and hormonal levels are also assessed in order to detect underlying cause.

Hypernatremia treatment involves two strategies; correcting sodium ion excess and treatment of underlying disease; it is usually carried out by giving dextrose water or other fluids devoid of sodium, infusion of fluid should be slow in order to prevent reactionary hyponatremia due to overdilution.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypernatraemia and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypertension:  
Hypertension: Hypertension is defined as persistently high blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured in two readings called systolic and diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure is amount of pressure in arteries during contraction or pumping of blood by heart and diastolic is the one, which is produced during diastole or relaxing phase of cardiac activity, which allows pooling of blood in heart.

Normal blood pressure of a person is 120/80; 120 refers to systolic and 80 refers to diastolic blood pressure, usually blood pressure is increased in old age due to age related changes in vasculature, but some types of hypertension are also present in children and young adults due to some diseases.

Hypertension is of two type; primary and secondary, primary type has no known cause, but secondary hypertension is due to some diseases like high blood cholesterol levels, hear diseases, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, chronic kidney diseases, and due to some tumors.

Risk factors for development of high blood pressure are obesity, stressful lives, smoking, and alcohol and    lack of physical activity, and pregnancy. Hypertension is silent killer usually there are no symptoms but some time patients feel headaches, vertigo and shortness of breath.

Hypertension is diagnosed often on screening of blood pressure readings. More then three or four readings at different timings are taken. History and examination is necessary to know causes of secondary hypertension. Treatment is done by drugs and by cure of primary cause.

Healthy life style should be adopted for both treatment and prevention of this deadly disease like cessation of smoking, maintaining an ideal weight, and daily exercises along with low fat and salt intake.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hypertension  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypochondriasis:  
Hypochondriasis: It is a state in which person has false perception from minor illness and symptoms that he or she is suffering from some chronic lethal disease. In other words, he or she has health phobias and over consciousness about his or her health.

People suffering from this psychological disorder have usually history of death of parents or close relatives from chronic disease like cancer or  heart or kidney failure, people  who do extra study of health related article on internet or in books and watch health shows on media and get increased awareness of risk factors and symptoms of diseases are vulnerable to get this disorder, some medical professionals like nurses, laboratory technicians  and medical students  are at risk of acquiring this disorder, some psychotic disorders are also associated  with hypochondriacs like obsessive compulsive disorders  and anxiety disorders.

People usually get their lab testes done reperatedly, they are not satisfied even with the lab reports and counseling by doctors and assumed reports and doctors are not reliable and, they use to change doctors and laboratories for their treatment and investigation.

Minor signs like fever, flu, and even gut sounds are alarming for these patients; they start to link them with some serious disorder.

Treatment is counseling, psychotherapy and behavioral therapy, anti psychotic drugs are also used.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypochondriasis  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypoglycemia:  
Hypoglycemia: Blood sugar levels get too low in condition. Our normal blood sugar levels are from 90 to 120 mg percentage, if sugar levels drop below 70mg percentage then person develops symptoms of hypoglycemia.

Causes: It can occur in people who are on diet and are not eating properly. Diabetics can develop it if they take increased dose of insulin, sometimes it can be a result of pancreatic tumor, which secretes large amounts of insulin.

Symptoms: Patient gets weakness, tingling sensation in hands and feet, tremors of hands, blurred vision and sweating, there is also headache, poor mental alertness, loss of coordination and even fainting and unconsciousness, if it is not treated promptly coma and even death  can occur. Patientís heartbeat becomes rapid with low blood pressure; patient looks nervous and pale and cannot speak properly.

Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by checking blood sugar levels, which are low.

Treatment: Mild cases respond to intake of some sugar rich drink, and rest, sever symptoms require immediate intravenous sugar injection; it is also treated by hormone called glucagon, which is antagonist of insulin. If pancreatic tumor is the cause it should be surgically removed, in diabetics, dose of insulin should be carefully injected and regulated because over dosage leads to hypoglycemia. It is better for diabetic patients to eat small meals in whole day to prevent low sugar levels in between meals.

In this page, we are going to discuss about hypoglycemia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypogonadism:  
Hypogonadism: Decreased or improper activity of gonads in both males and females is called hypogonadism. Gonads are small organs which produce reproductive cells and secrete male and female hormones which are responsible for sexual characteristics and fertility in both sexes.

Testes are male gonads and produce sperms and cells present in it produce a hormone called testosterone. Ovaries are female gonads and produce ova and secrete hormone called estrogen. In hypogonadism these organs are malformed or unable to function properly.

Function and secretion of hormones by these glands is controlled by hormones which are secreted by brain. Hypogonadism may be congenital or present at birth, or may be acquired later in life. Primary hpogonadism is a type which occurs due to defect in gonads and secondary hypogonadism occurs due to defects in brainís stimulation of gonads.

Causes are genetic defects in genes. Acquired causes are traumatic brain injury, childhood infections like mumps, abuse of drugs like opioid analgesics which are strong pain killers (like morphine) and anabolic steroids. Some disease also can produce gonadal dysfunction like diabetes, poly cystic ovarian syndrome in females.

Symptoms: There could be defect in primary and secondary sexual characters like small penis in males, lack of male pattern of body hair and baldness, irregular periods or lack of menstruation, small breasts, shrunken ovaries and uterus in females, decreased libido or sex desire and fertility in both sexes, delayed puberty and psychological disturbances like anxiety and depression are also big problem in these patients.

Diagnosis: Measurement of sex hormones is required to make diagnosis.

Treatment: Treatment is done by hormone replacement therapy and behavioral or psychological therapy by a psychologist.In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypogonadism and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypokalamia:  
Hypokalamia: Decreased number of potassium ions in blood is defined as hypokalemia. Potassium ion is important for neuromuscular conduction and maintains normal rhythm of heart, its normal concentration in blood is 3.5 to 5.0 mE/L.

Most of the potassium is in side the cells opposite to sodium ion which is mainly extra cellular in blood, both sodium and potassium are part of transport channels which regulate their entry into and out of cells and maintains normal concentrations of other ions also.

Deficiency of potassium in body may be due to decreased intake in case of anorexia, and starvation, in case of dehydration like vomiting, diarrhea, hormonal and kidney disorders result in hypokalemia because glands and kidney also regulate potassium concentration in blood.

 It can also occur due to some drugs like drugs used to treat edema, some anticancer agents and antifungal drugs. It also occurs because of metabolic alkalosis in which bicarbonate levels are high in blood raising blood PH.

Symptoms of hypokalemia are increased blood pressure, nervousness, muscle weakness, and muscle pain, in severe cases it can lead to paralysis, respiratory arrest, ad arrhythmias or abnormal heart beat leading to heart failure.  Diagnosis is simple to make by serum electrolyte measurements and ECG. ECG has characteristic changes in case of hypokalemia.

Hypokalemia is treated by oral and intravenous potassium supplements; it can also be corrected by diet containing potassium like bananas, citrus fruits and green leafy vegetables.

Correction is done very carefully like other electrolyte imbalance treatment because  excess  intake and rapid infusion of intravenous fluid containing potassium can in turn lead to rapid increase in potassium levels in blood which has its own complications.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypokalamia and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypomagnesaemia:  
Hypomagnesaemia: In this page, we are going to discuss about hypomagnesaemia  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hyponatraemia:  
Hyponatraemia: A decreased level of sodium ions in blood is called hyponatremia. Sodium along with potassium and calcium is most important ion and electrolyte which maintains osmotic pressure of blood, helps in cellular and muscular nerve conduction, it is also an important part of channels, which transport different ions across the cell membranes.

Mildly decreased levels can be asymptomatic but severely low levels result in life threatening condition. causes of hyponatremia are dehydration as occurs  in vomiting, nauseas, diarrhea, decreased oral intake, or over hydration  due to intravenous therapy, or edema due to various causes like congestive heart failure, liver or kidney failure, in this case sodium ions  are decreased by dilution of blood.

Various glands, which take part in electrolyte regulation in body, if diseased, can contribute to hyponatremia. Symptoms of hyponatermia are headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, irritability, muscle weakness and cramps, unconsciousness coma and death due to brain edema, and respiratory arrest.

Diagnosis is done by blood tests, which includes serum electrolyte measurements and   measurements of hormonal levels in blood. Normal levels of sodium ions in blood are 135 to 145 mEq/L. symptoms begin to start at 125 L /severe brain complications and mE occur at levels below 115 mE/L.

Treatment of hyponatremia should be done slowly and carefully because if intravenous solution is infused too rapidly it will shoot abruptly to   high levels of sodium, which is on other, hand is very dangerous to patient. Moreover, treatment depends on cause and type of hyponatremia.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hyponatraemia and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypophosphataemia:  
Hypophosphataemia: In this page, we are going to discuss about hypophosphataemia and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypoplasia:  
Hypoplasia: In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypoplasia and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypothermia:  
Hypothermia: Core body temperature less then 95F or 35C is defined as hypothermia. Body maintains and regulates the inside temperature by equal amount of heat production and heat loss. Which is regulated by various mechanisms, body temperature is regulated in hypothalamus which is a part of brain which detects the changes in body temperature and responds accordingly through various mechanisms. Normal core body temperature is 98. F or 37 C, heat is generated in body by various physiological and metabolic reactions and heat loss is mainly through skin by evaporation, in extremely cold weather and in certain internal conditions of body these  mechanisms fail and body becomes unable to generate more heat as compared to heat loss resulting in hypothermia. There are various factors which play role in its development like age, usually very young and very old people suffers from hypothermia because these people have less effient mechanisms of heat regulation in their bodies. People with certain brain diseases have no recognition of cold exposure because of impaired judgment and mental state like in Alzheimer and parkionson's disease, some hormonal  abnormalities like thyroid ,pituitary gland disorders, diabetic neuropathy, are also responsible for hypothermia. Persons with drug addictions like alcohol and psychiatric medications are also at risk Hypothermia mainly affects brain and heart. Initially as the body temperature, falls brain's function starts to deteriorate resulting in confusion, less cognitive function, unconsciousness coma and ultimately death in extreme cold. Heart is predisposed to abnormal cardiac rhythm in  response to hypothermia , ventricular fibrillation begins in which heart begins arrhythmias  without pumping blood which results in tissue ischemia and ultimately death. Hypothermia is preventable, protective clothing in cool weather, avoid drinking alcohol and if unavoidable keep it in limited amounts, some relatives should always be present with elderly and very young people in cold climates and weather so that in case of emergency they can get immediate help and first aid, if patient gets  unconscious call for medical  help immediately. In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypothermia and types of Hypothermia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hypothyroidism:  
Hypothyroidism: It is condition in which thyroid gland produces no or decreased amounts of thyroid hormones.

There are many causes in which thyroid gland is not able to do normal functions like lack of dietary iodine, inflammations of thyroid gland, pregnancy, radio isotope treatment of thyroid gland for hyperthyroidism or survival removal of thyroid gland, tumors of pituitary gland or hypothalamus in brain, surgery or radiation of glands producing thyroid related hormones, some autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland.

Some medicines like anti arrhythmic drugs and anti depressants also cause hypothyroidism on long-term use. Long term Stress is also major factor in development of hypothyroidism.

Symptoms: Patient develops weight gain, dry skin, intolerance to cold, constipation, lethargy, fatigue, headaches, decreased heart rate, depression and other mood disorders.

Menstrual irregularities and infertility in females, often goiter, which is enlargement of thyroid gland in front of neck, is also present.

Diagnosis: It is done by measuring TSH levels in blood, which is markedly elevated with decreased T3, and T 4 levels.

Treatment: It is done by giving thyroid hormones in form of oral pills. Thyroid hormones may be synthetic or animal derived. Treatment should be closely monitored and controlled because over treatment can lead to hyperthyroidism.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Hypothyroidism and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Hysteria:  
Hysteria: In this page, we are going to discuss about Hysteria and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
IGA Nepropathy:  
IGA Nepropathy: In this page, we are going to discuss about IGA Nepropathy  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Impetigo:  
Impetigo: Impetigo is superficial bacterial skin infection caused by bacteria, which reside on upper layer of skin. 

These bacteria are harmless at their local position but cause infection in case of break in skin integrity as if cuts and abrasions, repeated scratching due to itching or irritation of skin.

This infection is common in children and highly contagious and can be transmitted from person to person and by use of infected material like towels and clothing.

Symptoms: Patient develops red swollen papules which gradually turn to blisters and pustules, there are two varieties, one is non bullous and other one is bullous, in non bullous variety only red papules and pustules are present while in bullous type there are blisters filled with clear or yellow colored fluid, these blisters rupture after some days leaving a red area but there is no scar left after healing. Lesions are common on face especially around mouth and nose, hands and feet.

Diagnosis: Doctor diagnoses the condition by physical appearance of lesions, culture of fluid can be sent to identify organism.

Treatment: Topical antibacterial creams and soaps treat this infection. In case of extensive infection oral antibiotics are given, hygiene should be maintained by daily bath with soap and water. Avoid contact with infected person and objects.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Impetigo  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Incontenence Of Urine:  
Incontenence Of Urine: In this page, we are going to discuss about Incontenence Of Urine  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Infantile Convulsions:  
Infantile Convulsions: These are appearance of seizures or fits in children, these convulsions are usually finding in infants and resolve spontaneously after the age of 5 years.

Exact cause of infantile convulsions is not known but during an attack, abnormal impulse generation by brain cells is found resulting in muscle hyperactivity and convulsions.

Common causes of infantile convulsions are fever, some infection like flue, cold, or meningitis, which is inflammation and infection of coverings of brain, some metabolic derangements seen in dehydration or excessive diarrhea, these convulsions are usually familial and children have family history of disorder.

Symptoms are drowsiness, lethargy, poor feeding, fits involving whole or parts of body like arms or legs, stiffness of muscles, tongue and eye rolling, frothing of mouth, or pale or blue skin. This condition is very distressing and panic full to parents, great care should be taken during an episode because child can aspirate the gastric content resulting in choking and can bite the tongue.

Child should be  kept in upright position or  head should be turned to side, fever is present should be treated immediately with cold sponges or cold bath if greater then 103 degree or 104 degree centigrade, child should immediately be transferred to hospital. Fits either resolve spontaneously or relieved by muscle relaxants, anti epileptic or sedative drugs.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Infantile Convulsions and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Infertility:  
Infertility: Inability to conceive a child within two years of marriage with successful regular intercourse without use of contraceptives is defined as infertility. Infertility may be primary and secondary.

Primary infertility is one in which couple had no pregnancy right from the beginning of marriage and secondary infertility is that in which couple has conceived once and then gets problem in having second baby.

Infertility have different causes in males and females, hormonal changes, lack of good diet, smoking, obesity, dieting, alcohol, stress, diabetes, are general causes in both sexes, in females diseases like polycystic ovarian syndrome, vaginal and uterine infection, blockage of tubes, inability to produce ova, cervical incompetence, some mechanical factors like tumors or cancers of ovaries, uterus and vagina, some autoimmune and blood disorders are causes of infertility.

In males impotence, retrograde ejaculation, mechanical blockage by tumors, prolonged exposure of testicle to heat,  un descended testes, decreased sperm count are common causes. There are numerous tests to diagnose infertility, these include blood tests, hormonal measurements, urinalysis, ultrasound, CT and MRI scans. In males semen analysis is used to detect sperm counts.

For treating infertility there are some general measures which are advised to couples like improving diet containing vitamins, especially folic acid, vitamin A and vitamin C, minerals like zinc and iron, regular mild exercise, reducing stress and depression, maintaining proper weight.

Proper intercourse timings and techniques are very important, other treatment options depend upon the cause and done by infertility specialist. In vitro fertilization or Test Tube Baby is the final option for infertile couple.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Infertility and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Influenza:  
Influenza: Influenza or common flu is a viral illness caused by group of viruses called influenza viruses.Outbreaks are common in winter season. Children are usually victims but occurs in high ratio in adults also, it is usually transmitted through nasal or air droplets of a infected person or by touching infected material, patients develop dry cough, fever, sore throat, general weakness and running nose and eyes. As it is a viral illness it recovers by its own in rare cases it can cause complications. Treatment is bed rest, controlling fever and nasal  congestion by medicines, isolation for some period and avoidance of cold in case of old and young patients. Best way is prevention by vaccine which is to be injected yearly and avoid contact with infected person. In this page, we are going to discuss about Influenza and Influenza clinical features, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Insanity:  
Insanity: Sanity means sense or awareness, and insanity means complete loss of senses, in common language it is called madness, person is unable to perceive and response to normal reflexes, lost intellectual, memory, judgment, and controlled thoughts, it is extreme and often untreatable form of end stage psychological disorders, mania and insanity often are used as synonyms and have same meaning.

Person suffering from insanity is called insane. Insanity causes many physical and psychological impacts like  lack of personal hygiene, loss of behavioral controls like undressing in public places, exhibitionism of private body parts, loss of urination and  passing stool, some time aggressive behaviors like hitting or killing some other people nearby or suicidal  attempts are present.

Yelling, and shouting, alternative crying and laughing, speaking about unnatural events or disrupted sentences are also common.

Causes of insanity are diverse, some extreme emotional shock, previous psychological disorders, brain diseases, brain injury or trauma, intentional use of some poisonous substances or drugs can induce insanity.

Patient should be hospitalized in psychiatric hospital. Treatment ranging from psychological therapy and mild brief electric shocks are given to patients as a last resort along with antipsychotic drugs and sedative to prevent violent actions by patient.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Insanity and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Insomnia:  
Insomnia: Insomnia is defined as lack of sleep, causes and patterns of insomnia are diverse, insomnia may be of primary type or it can be secondary due to disease and various environmental factors.

Patient may feel difficulty in initiating sleep, have disturbed interrupted sleep, easily waken up or aroused from sleep or complete inability to sleep for several days. 

Secondary causes of insomnia are noisy environment, stress and depression, psychotic disorders, sleep apnea, drug abuse or withdrawal, like addiction for sleeping pills and alcohol, side effects of some drugs, excessive use of tea and coffee, some brain infections and diseases, brain injury or trauma, hormonal disturbances, extreme pain and severe injuries and excessive physical activity or exercise, total lack of activity or sedentary life styles can also cause lack of sleep.

Disturbed circadian rhythm, or reversed sleep cycle is very important cause in patients with jobs doing in night shifts and day time sleeping.

Diagnosis is made by history, sometimes EEG is done to detect abnormal brain impulses which can be found in some brain disorders.

CT and MRI scans are important to detect some brain trauma or disorder.  Sleep difficulty can be treated by sleeping pills, antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs in extreme cases and behavioral therapy, change of lifestyle is some time necessary to achieve normal sleep cycle of brain, balanced diet and reducing stress are good steps to treat sleep problems.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Insomnia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Insulin Therapy:  
Insulin Therapy: Insulin is a hormone, which is required to regulate the blood glucose levels. It is a protein, which is secreted by pancreas in response to high blood sugar levels.

Pancreas is small leaf like organ, which produced digestive enzymes, and hormones like insulin.

Patients with Type1 diabetes cannot be able to produce insulin or very little insulin, it is genetically transmitted disease and these patients develop diabetes in younger age.

Type 2diabetes occurs when patientís pancreas is producing insulin but body due to resistance cannot properly use insulin; both types of diabetes need insulin therapy to relieve symptoms and complications of high blood sugar levels.

Intravenous or subcutaneous routes can administer insulin used in these patients, insulin cannot be used orally because digestive enzymes destroy it, and most common rout of injecting insulin in diabetes patients is subcutaneous route, which means it is injected just beneath the skin in fatty tissue.

Usually it is injected in skin of abdomen, or arms. Intravenous insulin is used in emergency cases when patientís sugar control cannot be achieved despite giving through subcutaneous rout. Injection of insulin through subcutaneous rout requires proper sterilization of skin and special care.

Site of injection should be changed because if it is injected repeatedly at same site it causes necrosis of skin. There are special disposable syringes for insulin use, they have very thin needles and measurements are given on surface to give the required dose. Long-term use of insulin on skin sometimes create complications like bruises, necrosis etc.

In this page, we are going to discuss about insulin therapy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Intestinal Obstruction:  
Intestinal Obstruction: Intestinal obstruction is medical emergency and if not treated immediately can lead to gut perforation, peritonitis sepsis and even death.

Causes. Intestine can be obstructed by variety of caused, they include inflammation, impacted feces or  foreign object or tumor, intussusceptions  or twisting of intestinal loops, electrolyte and fluid imbalance like in  paralytic illus, adhesion or scar tissue formed after sugary can also cause obstruction. Hernia, gallstones, appendicitis are also major causes of obstruction.

Symptoms: Patient typically presents with abdominal distention, abdominal pain which is severe colicky  and Sharpe, vomiting and constipation, if  obstruction is in  small; vomit contain gastric contents like clear  water and food particles and if obstruction is in large bowel then patient will have bilious vomiting containing green colored bile. There is absolute constipation of many days to weeks.

Diagnosis: History and examination is helpful in making diagnosis. On Examination abdomen is highly painful to touch, there are no gut sounds on auscultation. Blood tests show elevated WBC count. Ultrasound and barium x rays confirms the diagnosis.

Treatment: Emergency surgery called laparotomy is done to know the cause and site of obstruction and simultaneously relief of obstruction to save the life. High dose of antibiotics are given to eradicate and prevent the spread of infection. Patients are not allowed to take anything by mouth for several days after surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Intestinal Obstruction and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Intuss Usception:  
Intuss Usception: One segment of large intestine is prolapsed into another segment mostly in distal part with all of its blood vessels and nerve supply in a condition.

This result in ischemia, and obstruction of involved segments. It is more common in children, but can also occur in adults but prevalence in adults is very rare. Intussusception most commonly occurs in ileo cecal region which is the junction or meeting point of small intestine with large intestine.

Causes: Exact etiology is unknown, but certain infections are known to cause pathogenesis of this condition.

Symptoms: Patient develops nausea, vomiting which contain green colored substance called bile, and severe abdominal pain, if part of involved intestine becomes infected, fever and chills will be present, interceptions can lead to intestinal obstruction and becomes medical emergency, sometimes it ruptures, producing peritonitis and shock, which can be lethal if not treated early.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by ultrasound abdomen and x ray abdomen, which clearly shows the prolapsed segment.

Treatment: Treatment is done by giving barium or gas enema, which is both diagnostic and curative, treatment, should be started on suspicion because without treatment it may even cause death within days.

If intussusceptions become complicated, immediate surgery is required in which surgeon manually corrects the prolapsed part and repositions it or if it became infected, or become necroses or dead it is removed along with the part of adjoining involved intestine.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Intuss Usception and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Iron:  
Iron: Iron is required by body in normal amounts when it exceeds the required  quantity, it  begins to store in organs like liver, skin, heart and brain and cause damage to these organs. Poisoning is common in children receiving iron supplements, in pregnant ladies, in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions like kidney failure and thalasemia patients and patients with other blood cancers. Iron interrupts oxidative phosphorylation in cells and causes their damage. Poisoning may be acute or chronic.

Symptoms: Gastrointestinal tract is first affected with acute poisoning. Iron in highly irritating to gastric mucosa and cause repeated vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, it can progress to hemorrhagic gastroenteritis leading to blood in stool with severe electrolyte and fluid imbalance and shock. With chronic poisoning liver is most commonly affected organ with low blood sugar levels, blood clotting disorders, metabolic acidosis results in multiple organ failure including brain and kidneys, patient can develop stupor, confusion and  coma.

Diagnosis: Elevated serum iron levels are diagnostic blood tests reveals increased blood sugar in acute poisoning and low blood sugar in chronic damage involving liver. Measurement of serum ferritin levels is also diagnostic. Liver function tests are helpful in chronic toxicity.

Treatment: Although iron is difficult to suck out but immediate stomach wash can be helpful. Oxygen with IV fluid replacement helps in quick recovery. Correction of metabolic acidosis is very important in outcome.

In this page, we are going to discuss about iron and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Iron Deficiency Anemia:  
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Anemia is decreased level of red blood cells and hemoglobin in blood. Iron deficiency anemia is very common problem in developing countries, in pregnant ladies and in women if child bearing age, these women loose large amount of blood and iron in form of hemoglobin during their menstruation and during child birth process.

Iron deficiency anemia is caused by iron deficiency either due to dietary lack or due to some other factors. Iron is an important mineral which is a part of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is iron containing protein in blood which carries oxygen to different tissues in body, certain malabsorption syndromes also result in iron deficiency anemia like celeriac disease, crohn's disease and gastric bypass surgery, strict vegetarians also develop iron deficiency anemia because iron is mainly present in red meat, chicken and other animal foods; gastrointestinal diseases like esophageal varies, peptic ulcer disease, certain cancers like colon, esophageal or stomach cancers also cause iron deficiency anemia. Patients with iron deficiency anemia look pale, lethargic and are short of breath.

They have dry flaky hairs and fragile nails; they have headaches, poor mental functions like decreased thinking and concentration. in children growth will be restricted .Symptoms of primary diseases are also present like black colored stool in case of ulcer or cancer . Diagnosis is made by blood tests. Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit and red cell count points towards its diagnosis.

It is preventable in most cases. Diets rich in iron should be taken to avoid the complications, diets rich in iron are chicken, red meat, and animal liver is the highest source of iron. Egg yolk, beans, peas, dry lentils and apricots and   spinach are also rich in iron. Pregnant women should be given iron supplements in pregnancy to avoid complication. In this page, we are going to discuss about iron deficiency anemia and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Irritative Diarrhoea:  
Irritative Diarrhoea: Irriative diarrhea occurs in irritable bowel syndrome. Its exact cause is unknown but it could be due to stressful life styles, anxiety, and depression or might be post infectious. It is more common in women and young adults. It is a life long problem with periodís o of remission and relapses. Infection might alter the normal osmolarity of bowel contents or disturb the fluid exchange resulting in diarrhea.

Stress usually increases the bowel movements by nervous stimulation from higher brain centers.

Symptom: Patient experiences abdominal pain with strong desire to pass stool and then passes frequent watery stools with periods of constipation. There is loss of appetite and weight loss. This is harmless disorder, which is only discomforting and does not lead to cancer formation.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is usually based on history, usually history of past infection or antibiotic use is present. Busy stressful life style gives the clue for diagnosis. There are no specific blood tests.

Treatment: There is no specific treatment for this conditions patients are counseled to eat high fiber diet, drink lot of water, to have small meals, avoid overeating. Moderate exercise also helps in relieving stress. Drugs are given to reduce gut motility. Antidepressants give much relief in anxiety and stress which might be the causative factors.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Irritate Diarrhea and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Ischaemic Colitis:  
Ischaemic Colitis: Ischemic colitis is inflammation and damage of colon due to interruption of its blood supply. In majority of cases, it resolves after supportive treatment but some cases result in severe complications like obstruction, gangrene, strictures and chronic colitis.
   
Causes: Ischemic colitis may be occlusive or non-occlusive. Occlusive colitis results due to blockage of blood supply to colon, like in thrombi embolism or clot formation, tumors of blood vessels or strictures or scars around the colon due to previous inflammation or surgeries.

Non-occlusive colitis occurs due to hypovolumia as in low blood pressure and shock.

Symptoms: Patient has abdominal pain usually on left side, along with blood in stool or bloody diarrhea. If obstruction occurs abdominal pain and swelling is present, abdomen gets highly pain full to touch, vomiting and constipation are also present. If ischemic part becomes infected or gangrene develops then patient has fever and chills. 

Sometimes gut perforation occurs resulting in fluid loss, peritonitis, and ilieus, it produces severe dehydration, shock and electrolyte imbalance.

Diagnosis: It is made by colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Ultrasound and Ct scans are non-specific and detect complications like obstruction.

Blood tests show increased white cell count. There is electrolyte imbalance like low bicarbonate levels.

Treatment: Most of the cases resolve after supportive measures like rest to intestine in which patient is not allowed taking anything by mouth for days to weeks, fluid and electrolyte replacement by IV route. Antibiotics are given to prevent superimposed infections. More severe cases with complications require bowel surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Ischaemic Colitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis:  
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Inflammation of joints which affect children between preadolescent stages without any known cause is called juvenile idiopathic arthritis. most children negative for anti bodies in   blood which could be responsible for other forms of arthritis, this disorder is more common girls, autoimmune process thought to be responsible for the joint space damage. it is of three types; oligoarticulr, involving one or two joints, usually large joints are involved in  this type, and asymmetrical joint inflammation is present means  only one sided body  joints are affected, other type is polyarticular which involves 5 or more joint usually small joints of hands and feet are affected  but weight bearing joints  can also be affected like knee, hips, and ankle, in this type symmetrical involvement of both sides of body is present, third type is associated with involvement of any joint of body with fever and skin rash.

Symptoms are joint swelling and pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility; later it progresses to immobility due to contractures and fibrosis, and deformity or bending of joints, eyes can also be affected leading to inflammation, decreased visual acuity and even blindness.

There is no specific test to identify the disease process but x rays, MRI scans and eye examination can help diagnose the condition, one approach is aspiration of joint fluid and examination to exclude other diseases.

Some cases are positive for ANAs which are antibodies present in some autoimmune disorders. Treatment and management include intraarticular steroid injections and systemic steroids and chemotherapeutic agents; these drugs have considerable effrects on outcome and recovery but have side effects like poor growth and low IQ in children so their use should be limited and justified.

Surgery is undertaken for already damaged joints like for excising contractures. Physiotherapy and behavioral training should be included in management and often done by group practices by special therapists.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kaner:  
Kaner: In this page, we are going to discuss about kaner and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kaposi Sarcoma:  
Kaposi Sarcoma: Kaposi sarcoma is rare type of skin cancer developing in elderly people and in AIDS patients. Other people who have less or no immunity in them also develop this type of malignancy. It is caused by a virus called herpes virus type 8 Virus mainly spreads through saliva and transmitted from infected person to another via deep kissing,  therefore route is mainly through sexual contact. It is common sexually transmitted infection and prevalent in homosexual males and females, who satisfies their sex desire mainly through kissing. Herpes virus 8 is also present in other body secretions but it is isolated in highest titers from saliva, although it can be found in semen and other secretions also. It causes angioplasty tumors on skin, which are vascular, and appears as red or purplish plaques or nodules on skin, appearing on lower limbs first and then spread to other regions of body. Kaposi sarcoma is present in AIDS patients in high frequency. Because of destruction of immune cells in theses patients, they have high susceptibility to vial infections; moreover, its infection is more severe and aggressive in these patients. Treatment is radiation therapy to remove the tumor from skin and chemotherapy may be needed in severe cases. Prevention is by safe sex and avoiding contact with infected persons. In this page, we are going to discuss about Kaposi's Sarcoma and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kaposiís Sarcoma :  
Kaposi's Sarcoma: Kaposi sarcoma is epithelial tumor present in immune suppressed patients, especially it has significant importance due to its presence in AIDS patients, and other people who can develop it are transplant patients. It is endemic in some African countries.

Kaposi sarcoma is related to  human herpes virus 8, it is postulated that infection with this virus is associated with cancer formation, Kaposi sarcoma either only affects skin or it can be present in mucous membranes like mouth, gums, and in internal organs like lungs and intestinal tract.

Cetaceous Kaposi sarcoma is present is mostly present on feet, face and back or hand, they appear as red purple raised papules, nodules or in form of plaques, these may be single or multiple in number and range from small pea to a size of tennis ball.

They can be ulcerated or bleed, some time they become painful and result in immobility and discomfort, there is no associated itching in these lesions. Kaposi sarcoma is diagnosed by skin biopsy; in AIDS patients, these are associated with decreased CD4 cell count. Kaposi sarcomas are treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, topical cytotoxic agents and retinoid are also effective and give relief. Primary treatment of AIDS by antiretroviral drugs is most important and their regression is seen with active treatment of AIDS

In this page, we are going to discuss about Kaposi's Sarcoma  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kawasakis Disease:  
Kawasakis's Disease: It is necrotizing inflammation of medium sized vessels throughout the body, it is an autoimmune disorder induced by viral infections usually in children under 5 years of age but adults are also affected.

Without complications disease is self limited but dangerous in case of development of coronary artery aneurism or dilatation which is prone to rupture and can cause sudden death, disease starts as high grade fever which lasts for one or two weeks, along with red eyes, skin rashes, enlarged painless lymph nodes, peeling of upper  skin layers and desquamation, bright  red tongue with white projections called papillae gives the appearance of strawberry hence called strawberry tongue, these are most common symptoms but other symptoms can also be present like diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, joint pain, urinary tract infections and renal failure due to nephritic syndrome, aseptic meningitis and coronary artery aneurysms  are most serious complications manifesting as unconsciousness, seizures, stiff neck, palpitation, chest pain and  shortness of breath.

Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease requires presence of fever and at least three signs including detection of coronary artery involvement by Echocardiography and angiography .with adequate treatment disease has benign course, intravenous immunoglobulin or antibodies are used along with steroids, patients should be hospitalized and call for follow up after recovery to evaluate heart functions on weekly or monthly basis.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Kawasakis's Disease and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kerosine Oil:  
Kerosine Oil: Kerosene oil is cheap fuel available for heating and cooking purposes. Its poisoning is common in underdeveloped areas wit lack of necessities of life and electricity like urban slums and remote rural areas. Its poisoning is common in children where they accidentally ingest or inhale the fumes of oil. It mainly affects the respiratory system; symptoms develop after few hours and gradually progress. Death can occur in absence of medical treatment due to central nervous system involvement.

Symptoms: After ingestion, nausea, vomiting and cough develop with tachycardia or increased heart rate. In large amounts choking and cessation of respiration can occur. Other symptoms are swelling of throat, burning of mouth and esophagus, abdominal pain and bloody stool. Patient may collapse after hours due to low blood pressure. Local contact results in pain full eyes and vision loss, skin burns and irritation can also occur in case of spillage. If patient survives the acute attack CNS manifestation, predominate like headache, confusion, drowsiness, dizziness seizures, and depression.

Diagnosis: There is particular smell of kerosene oil, which can give the hint of exposure. History and examination help in diagnosis.

Treatment:
In case of local contact immediately, wash the area with cool water. In case of ingestion, milk and palin water can be given but should not be given in drowsy and unconscious patient. Patient should be shifted to hospital after first aid measures where patient will need breathing and hemodynamic support sometimes-artificial ventilation and intubation is necessary in severe cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Kerosine Oil and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kidneys:  
Kidneys: In this page, we are going to discuss about Kidneys and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Kinetic Of Drug Metabolism:   Kinetic Of Drug Metabolism: In this page, we are going to discuss about Kinetic Of Drug Metabolism and types of Kinetic Of Drug Metabolism, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Kwashiorkor:  
Kwashiorkor: Kwashiorkor is a severe protein and calorie malnutrition or deficiency in childhood. It is very common problem in underdeveloped countries  where socioeconomic factors  and poverty contribute a lot to the child mortality and morbidity, it is associated with greater part of illness and death rate in these countries .children  have extreme protein deficiency and develo poor growth, weigh loss, edema,  protruded belly, skin infections, flaky gray hairs  and flaky nails. In acute cases child develops apathy, irritability and drowsiness. Kwashiorkor either results from dietary deficiency or malabsorption syndromes due to various infections of bowl like parasitic infection. In this disease protein, deficiency leads to decreased immunity and that in turn leads to increased infection rate in children.  special care is needed to treat this diseases, balanced diet containing proteins and vitamins should be given to children;  infections should be controlled through proper medication, mothers should be educated about personal hygiene, benefits of  hand washing,  breast feeding and importance of balanced diet. Breast-feeding is of important concern because breast milk contains antibodies that give immunity against infections. In this page, we are going to discuss about kwashiorkor and types of kwashiorkor, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Laryngeal Obstruction:  
Laryngeal Obstruction: Laryngeal obstruction is sudden chocking and respiratory difficulty due to blockage of larynx by foreign body or edema. Choking may be partial or complete. Common foreign bodies are small toys, buttons, fish bones, and coins.

Other causes of choking are laryngospasm. Tongue falling back as in semiconscious  people or in patients with coma or during attack of epilepsy and seizures. Laryngeal tumors, trauma and thick secretions can also cause obstruction.

Symptoms: Patient suddenly feel suffocative feeling like something stucked inside the throat,  respiratory difficulty, classical sign is hands clutched  to the  throat, rapid pulse, cyanosis or blue  fingers, nails and toes, palpitation,  sweating  and extreme anxiety.

Diagnosis: History and examination by laryngoscope are done to directly examine the larynx, characteristic breathing Pattern with difficult inspiration and normal expiration is diagnostic if choking is partial and patient is able to speak, respiratory difficulty but not that severe, able to cough.

In complete choking person unable to speak, cannot cough, gradually becomes agitated, confused and ultimately becomes unconscious. Injuries to neck or throat and gun shot wounds themselves indicate toward the condition.

Treatment: Surgery is done to remove the impacted foreign body. In case of laryngospasm give IV muscle relaxants and 100% oxygen. Prompt incubation is necessary in case of impending respiratory failure, tracheotomy is done to save life in case of complete cessation of respiration; in tracheotomy, and small hole is made in trachea in front of neck to restore the breathing.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Laryngeal Obstruction and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Laryngeal Paralysis:  
Laryngeal Paralysis: Larynx is a box like structure, which provides passage between the throat and the respiratory passages. Its function is to produce voice. Two muscular bands in front of larynx called vocal cords or vocal folds they vibrate during passage of air and produce sound do voice production.

Another function of larynx is to prevent food entry into respiratory passages by closing it with its upper flap like structure called epiglottis. larynx is innervated by  a of cranial  nerve  called vague nerve  and various other nerves  which comes from brain stem and  which control its function and innervate vocal cords.

Laryngeal paralysis is a condition in which vocal cords and other muscles of larynx are unable to move or vibrate or cannot do normal function due to interrupted nerve supply. It is common in children might be because of birth trauma, various birth defects and neuromuscular disorders. Causes in adults are postoperative complications of surgeries like thyroidectomy, various tumors of neck, thyroid and larynx, which compress the nerve supply of larynx, and autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. 

Symptoms: Laryngeal paralysis may be unilateral or bilateral. In unilateral case, nerve supply of only one side of larynx is interrupted. Resulting in hoarseness of voice or change in voice quality. In bilateral paralysis all nerve innervations to larynx is discontinued  resulting in respiratory difficulty and complete cessation of voice production and aspiration of food particles in respiratory passages Aspiration cause severe complications causing lung edema and infection and even choking and sudden death depending upon type and quantity of food particle  which has been aspirated.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by laryngoscopy and cranial nerve tests and other neurological examination. Electromyography, which is wavy graph of electrical stimulation of muscles and detects muscle paralysis, is also very help full, symptoms of underlying causes are also present.  X-ray neck, chest, and CT and MRI scans are also very helpful.

Treatment: Treatment varies according to cause. Most likely surgery is recommended to relieve pressure on nerves like removal of tumors, immunosuppressive drugs treat autoimmune disorders. Thyroid surgery and other head and neck surgeries should be performed with expert hands to avoid complications.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Laryngeal Paralysis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Laryngeal Phthisis:  
Laryngeal Phthisis: Laryngeal phthisis is chronic inflammation and later ulceration of the laryngeal mucosa secondary to lung tuberculosis. It is very serious and disabling complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Chronic spitting of sputum containing tubercular bacilli causes contact of laryngeal mucosa with   organism and they cause chronic inflammation and ulceration.

Ulceration is sometimes aggressive to destroy the vocal cords resulting in complete loss of speech.

Symptoms: Patient has dysphonia or alteration of voice; hoarse, weakened voice will be present, later progressing to aphonia. Aphonia is loss of speech. It usually does not completely disappear but present as hoarse whispering sound.

Low consistent pain of throat along with sore throat is also present. If epiglottis is involved there will be pain on swallowing especially for liquids  and if it gets inflamed and edematous then  dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing will be present, symptoms and signs of tuberculosis like cough with sputum, weight loss, decreases appetite, swollen lymph nodes, night sweats and fever are also present and points towards diagnosis. If laryngeal edema or swelling develops, death occurs within in days, if untreated.

Diagnosis: For diagnosis laryngoscopy will be done. Small grey punched out ulceration is seen on larynx sometimes yellow in color. Inflammation of epiglottis and vocal cords are usually present. Chest examination is necessary to see the signs of lung tuberculosis. Wheezing and rhonchi will be present on chest. Chest x-rays are important to give clue about old tuberculosis,or patient give history pf having T.B in past.

Treatment:  Treatment is only supportive along with treatment of primary disease. Patient should be prohibited from talking and voice usage, should be advised to avoid smoking, spicy foods, etc. in severe cases involving laryngeal edema intubation and tracheostomy is needed.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Laryngeal Phthisis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Laybyrinthitis:  
Laybyrinthitis: Labyrinthitis is inflammation of the inner ear or labyrinth also called auditory apparatus. Labyrinth consists of  two structure cochlea and vestibular canals ;responsible for conveying sound signals to brain and keeping the body in balance and equilibrium through perceiving auditory stimuli.
   
Many causes are responsible for its inflammation like certain bacterial and viral infections, allergies, head injuries  and fractures, infections transmitted from middle ear, various drugs in high doses and alcohol abuse. Common and mild causes are cold or flu.

Although rare but some tumors  at the base of brain and benign tumors of middle ear can also cause  labyrinthitis symptoms are headache, vertigo or dizziness, nausea, vomiting tingling or ringing in ears, in case of viral or bacterial infections fever and  malaise   will also be present. Symptom get worse when patient moves the head   and neck or look upwards.

Labyrinths can be self limited or it can progress to complication resulting in hearing loss. Care should be taken in immediate treatment .patient should consult ENT specialist who is expert in ear nose and throat diseases; patient should take care of preventive measures to avoid dangerous situation due to balance loss and vertigo in this condition, for example patient should not do heavy work or lift heavy weights, avoid, alcohol and cigarette smoking. Patient should rest in silent and calm environment during the illness.

In this page, we are going to discuss about laybyrinthitis and types of laybyrinthitis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lead:  
Lead: Lead is heavy metal and very dangerous to human health. Its poisoning is common in children due to exposure to household items like paint and piping which contain considerable amounts of lead.

Lead poisoning g is also common in industrial exposure in workers who are employed in ammunition factories, glass works, ceramics, and battery and plastic manufacturers; in addition plumbers, lead miners and firing instructors are highly prone to lead poisoning.

Water and soil are contaminated with lead especially in urban settings from underground lead pipes and paints and chronic exposure in common in busy polluted urban areas. In these areas people are prone to chronic poisoning.

Symptoms:
Symptoms are different in adults and children, symptoms of toxicity also vary depending on duration of exposure. In children anemia, abdominal pain, recurrent diarrhea, poor growth, delayed milestones and bone deformities can occur impaired cognitive functions and intellectual levels, and mental retardation are also seen.

Pregnant ladies who are exposed to lead can have premature labor and can have birth defects in babies, in adultís headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation is present with metallic taste in mouth, impaired reproductive functions are present with loss of sex desire, impotence and infertility in females. Loss of memory, insomnia, behavioral disorders and seizures are common. Kidney failure is most common complication.

Diagnosis: It is made by measuring lead levels in blood. Blood tests are important especially peripheral films because red blood cells have characteristic changes in their structure due to lead poisoning.

Treatment: It is treated by chelating agents which bind lead in body and inhibit their toxic effects. Correction of anemia produced with lead poisoning is important, supportive therapy with control of seizures, oxygen supplementation and correction of kidney functions are very important in outcome.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lead and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lead Palsy:  
Lead Palsy: Lead is a heavy metal and found naturally in soil, water and sand, it is also found in consumer products like underground pipes and paints. 

Underground water can be polluted with particles of lead, children and adults can be accidentally poisoned by  using  polluted water  or by inhalation of fumes from paint  particles, workers and professionals doing lead mining work or in factories making lead batteries and other products can have chronic toxicity of lead.

Lead have many harmful effects on health including gastrointestinal and nervous system; lead palsy is form of paralysis seen in patients with lead toxicity, lead interferes with normal transmission of brain impulses and imbalance of neurotransmitter release from brain, most common palsy involves hand, muscle of hands are affected initiating as weakness and loss of sensations, flaccid muscles and arm fixed in abnormal posture, with wrist rotated to medial side.

Lack of treatment results in progressive paralysis with loss of mobility and disability, muscles of arm is atrophied or shrink in size.

Diagnosis is done by measuring levels of lead in blood and blood tests, which detect abnormal red blood cells, which are damaged by elevated levels of lead. EMG studies are also helpful.

Treatment of lead palsy aims at decreasing lead content in blood and promotes its excretion by chelating agents, which bind to lead particles. Physiotherapy helps in normal restoration of function in already damaged muscles.     

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lead Palsy and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Leg Ulcers:  
Leg Ulcers: In this page, we are going to discuss about Leg Ulcers and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Leucorrhoea:  
Leucorrhoea: Leucorrhea is excessive quantity if normal vaginal discharge it is either clear or white in color, sticky and leaves yellow satins on undergarments or clothes.

It can be infected with fungi or bacteria  called as infective leucorrhea fungal infection has curdy white discharge and associated with itching, in bacterial infection it become yellowish green or foul smelly, it can also occur due to cervical polyps in that case it might be brownish or bloody.

Risk factors for leucorrhea are diabetes, poor hygiene, persistent moisture in genital area, use of contaminated pads and toilet accessories, imbalanced diet, use of nylon or silk undergarments, and stress. Leucorrhea also occurs in pregnancy and period after pregnancy, after sex with condoms, use of pessaries, or diaphragms or intrauterine birth control devices.

Leucorrhea can be easily diagnosed on physical examination and history, thee is no need to go for further investigation usually. But basic blood tests including blood sugar and hemoglobin levels are necessary to be done before starting treatment. Most of the cases respond to multivitamin supplements and antibiotics, diet plays important role.

Yogurt is very effective in this disorder, coconut water and fresh fruit juices are best diet for improving condition. Genital area and inner side of vagina should be washed daily with bath and dried;  genitals should be washed after having sex.undergarments made up of cotton should be used. Public toilets should be avoided.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Leucorrhoea and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Leukemia:  
Leukemia: Leukemia is a disease in which bone marrow starts producing abnormal white blood cells. It is of two types. Acute and chronic leukemia. Further types depend on the kind of stem cells affected. Stem cells are the precursors of white blood cells in marrow and get two cell lines, myelitis, and lymphoid. Chronic leukemia remains asymptotic for decades. Acute leukemia produces abrupt symptoms, like fatigue, headache, weight loss, loss of appetite, bruising on body, infections, and bleeding disorders. When it affects brain symptoms are confusion. Vomiting, seizures and headache. Risk factors are smoking, exposure to radiations like people working in X-ray departments, radiation plants, and other chemicals like benzene handling workers in factories. Treatment includes chemotherapy radiotherapy, biological therapy with interferon's and antibodies, and finally stem cell transplantation. In this page, we are going to discuss about Leukemia and types of Leukemia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lice Infection:  
Lice Infection: Lice infestation is common problem lice can affect head, body and pubic hairs.

Head lice are commonest, these are parasites of brown, grey or black colors, they lay eggs called nits, which adhere to hairs and can be seen attached to them, they produce itching in hairs and can cause abrasions on scalp in case of extensive scratching, and sometime they are seen crawling on neck, ears and forehead.

Cause of infestation are poor hygienic conditions like lack of daily shampooing, infection can transmit from on person to another  as in  school or hostel fellows and from objects like comb, brushes and caps.

Body lice are less common and their infection is common in lower socioeconomic group and overcrowded areas, body louse is grey in color and can be present anywhere on body but most common locations are skin folds. They can cause intense itching, superimposed infection due to itching, and can cause systemic allergic reactions like fever and chills. Pubic louse invade the pubic hairs and transmit by close sexual contact.

Treatment: Lice can be removed by fine toothed comb, many anti lice shampoos are available in markets which are  very effective in eradication of infection, daily  shampooing and bath with  antiseptic soap  is very effective, itching require anti allergic drugs, in case of more severe  systemic reaction like fever; contact doctor.

All the objects like comb, clothing, and bed sheets should be washed in hot water; pubic hairs should be removed after ten days. Check and treat every family member for lice because they transmit quickly from person to person.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lice Infection  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lichen Planus:  
Lichen Planus: Lichen planus is a non-communicable disease in which reddish purple; bumps appear on face with shiny surface and white streaks. These bumps are associated with mild itch or pain; lichen planus can also affect nails, mouth, tongue, guns, and even genitals.

In mouth, these lesions can cause mouth ulcers, gum redness and sores, reddish white patches with redness and pain on tongue, ulcers, blisters or sores can be present on tongue. After resolution of lesions, pigmented brown marks remain on skin with scars. Some times these lesions occur in groups or bunch. Usually this disease resolves in some years but can recur.

In Genitals, area stores are present with associated painful intercourse. Lichen planus of nails appears as flaky brittle nails with irregular margins, and nail loss. Exact cause of this disease is not known but some autoimmune process initrate it, it is also associated with intake of some drugs and viral infections like hepatitis, diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, and sometime skin biopsy is performed to confirm diagnosis.

Lichen planus is treated by anti histamines, oral or topical steroids, and lasers. Oral ulcers respond to local application of glycerin, steroids and folic cid supplements but mouth disease is difficult to treat.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lichen Planus  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lichen Sclerosus:  
Lichen Sclerosus: This is chronic skin disease in which white colored papules appear on skin, which gradually merges to become plaques with some time mild itch, most of the time it is asymptomatic.

Exact cause of lichen scleroses is not known but multiple factors contribute; like genetics, autoimmune process and hormonal imbalance. It is usually associated with hyperthyroidism, diabetes and decreased estrogen level in blood. Lichen scleroses are of two types; genital and extra genital. In extra genital type, lesions appear on body mostly on shoulders and back, these lesions cause skin thickening with time.

Genital type occurs as same lesions on vulva and anus of females, which gradually become thick and cause occlusion of vaginal opening these lesions become painful with time and sexual intercourse is difficult or pain full to do along with painful urination and defecation. 

Women of premenopausal and menopausal age groups suffer most it but can occur in young girls also. In men, disease affects the glans of penis and cause thickening of prepuce, itching, and urinary obstruction, in men anus is not usually involved.

Lichen scleroses are associated with increased risk of vulvar and penile cancer. Lichen scleroses is diagnosed by skin biopsy, asymptomatic cases requires no treatment except keeping watch on progress of lesions, topical steroid application gives relief in most cases. Surgery is required in cases of vaginal stenos is or occlusion in females and urinary obstruction in males.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lichen Sclerosus and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lithium:  
Lithium: Lithium is widely used in pharmacological industry as drug. Lithium is used in many antipsychotic drugs and anti depressants, these drugs are used to effectively treat mania, psychosis, bipolar disorders and especially inhibit suicidal tendency in these patients, they also act as mood stabilizers.

Lithium and its derivatives are also used in treatment of various types of headaches and in some skin disorders like various types of dermatitis in form of local application. Its used is also effective in some bone marrow disorders like leucopenia. Lithium is also a known teratogenic substance. 

Teratogens are substances, which cause birth defects in developing baby if taken during pregnancy. Lithium has low therapeutic index, overdose can cause severe side effects, and poisoning, poisoning is common in case of accidental ingestion of drug or over dose in patients on chronic therapy.

Symptoms: Nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain develops on ingestion of large doses. Abnormal gait and eye movements called nystagmus, muscle twitching and jerky movements of hands are most common manifestations.

Other symptoms are weakness, confusion, convulsions, seizures or fits, severe dehydration, renal failure coma and death, in survivors permanent neurological damage occurs like memory loss, psychosis, and persistent nystagmus. In patients with long term use; renal failure and diabetes insipidus are common complications.

Diagnosis: It can be made by measuring lithium levels in blood and urine and from history of overdose. Signs and symptoms are also helpful in making diagnosis.

Treatment:  Drinking large amounts of water as a first aid measure is effective before going to hospital, stomach wash and activated charcoal are very effective in recent poisoning kidney functions have to be monitored regularly and dialysis is required to restore kidney function. Other treatment is supportive with fluid and electrolyte therapy with symptomatic treatment of neurological symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lithium and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Locomotor Ataxia:  
Locomotor Ataxia: Locomotor ataxia is abnormal uncoordinated movements of limbs due to loss of position, vibration and touch, patient can feel the pain but cannot make movement coordinated by touch and position sense. When patient se towards the limbs then can only judge the things going on.

Locomotor ataxia is caused by demyelization or damage of bundle or nerves, which run through posterior column of spinal cord. It is complication of syphilis in tertiary stage, syphilis is bacterial sexually transmitted disease and has three stages, first stage comprises of sores on genitals malaise, in tertiary stage heart and CNS is involved.

In locomotors ataxia patient has high stepping gait that means patient put feet on ground with force and pressure due to loss of position sense. Patient walks in unrhythmical manner there is muscle weakness also.

Loco motor ataxia is diagnosed by history and examination, there are weak reflexes, and muscles loose tone and are flaccid. History of syphilis is given and testes for syphilis are positive. CT and MRI scan help in diagnosing the nerve damage.  Treatment of primary disease can limit the disease process, physiotherapy play a major role in treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Locomotor Ataxia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lower Back:  
Lower Back: It is most common pain experienced by people all over the world. It is more common in women as compared to men and varies in intensity from mild discomfort to severe agonizing pain prohibiting from daily activities.

Lower back pain might be simply secondary to wrong sitting and working postures or due to nutrient deficiency like calcium, and vitamin D deficiency. These two causes account for more then 70% cases of lower back pain, next to it are changes like loosening of structures in lumbar region due to pregnancy or after repeated child births in women and after menopause when estrogen deficiency is encountered leading to less bone mineralization by calcium.

Other causes are prolapsed disc or slipped disc, degenerative processes related to aging which causes vertebrae and their related structures more prone to injuries and inflammations, decreased physical activity and working in positions which cause strains of ligaments and muscles at this region is also major cause.

Diagnosis requires history and examination along with x-rays. Any abnormality seen on x rays can lead to more investigations like CT and MRI scans of lumboscral spine. Bone density test and calcium and vitamin D levels in blood are also mandatory non invasive tests.

Most of the cases respond to pain killers and calcium and vitamin supplements, along with rest and mild exercises.

Local massage of herbal oils and anti inflammatory, pain killer or muscle relaxant ointments also give much relief in disorder. Any major abnormality or disease in spinal cord and its related structures need surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lower Back and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lung Cancer:  
Lung Cancer (Bronchial Carcinoma):  Bronchial  carcinoma is a type of lung cancer which is most commonly seen in smokers but environmental pollutants also seem to play a major role in its causation and progression.  This type of cancer appears in bronchi which are main passages conveying  breathed air from  outside to lung alveoli. Patients have along history of cigarette smoking, it is also seen in non smokers who inhale cigarette smoke passively like close relatives of cigarette smokers. Symptoms include shortness of breath, cough containing blood,  chest pain, malaise, weight loss, decreased appetite, persistent chest infections, sometimes signs of metastasis are also present. Most common sites of metastasis are brain,bone and liver.  Some other tumours can also cause metastasis in lung like breast, bone and brain cancer in which case signs and symptoms relating to these organ systems are also present. Diagnosis can done on chest x-ray, CT or MRI scans and on history usually infections and pleural effusions are present on x ray, pleural effusion is usually blood stained. Treatment options are surgery to remove the tumor, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have also roles but unfortunately survival rate is not good even  after these procedures, especially in tumors with metastasis. In this page, we are going to discuss about Bronchial Carcinoma and types of Bronchial Carcinoma, symptoms of tumor, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lupus Erythematosus:  
Lupus Erythematosus: Cetaceous lupus erythematosus is a part of systemic autoimmune disease called systemic lupus erythematosus or SLE, which affects many parts of body. This disease is common in smokers.

Most common form is discoid lupus, in which disc shaped scaly red patches appear on face especially on cheeks, nose and ears, these lesions heal with scarring, some times these lesions get hypertrophied or increase in size resembling warts,  these skin lesions carry a risk of developing in to skin cancer some time they are present on palm of hands.

These are other forms of lupus erythematosus also, in systemic form involving other organs there is red rash, which is present on cheeks and cross bridge of nose thus giving the appearance of butterfly.

This is called butterfly rash of SLE. There is sun induced urticaria, hives; hair thinning and hair loss occurs due to lesions present on scalp, there are mouth ulcers, papulovesicular rash, nodules or lumps and destruction of fats resulting in very ugly scars due. Some drugs also induce rash in these patients including some antibiotics, anti epileptics and lithium salts, but skin manifestations are rare.

SLE is diagnosed by measuring antibody titer in blood; ANAs are antibodies, which are raised. Blood tests reveal decreased no of white blood cells. Skin biopsy is often diagnostic.

Coetaneous manifestations of SLE can be prevented by cessation of smoking, avoiding sun exposure and application of sun block. Cosmetics can be used to hide the lesions. Treatment involves topical and oral steroids, some times topical vitamin A creams are also effective.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lupus Erythematosus and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lupus Erythematous:  
Lupus Erythematous: Lupus erythematosus is chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder, which can affect almost any part of body. Its most common form is systemic lupus erythematosus, other types are discoid lupus, neonatal lupus and drug induced lupus erythematosus. Common symptoms are fatigue, general malaise, depression, joint pain and swelling, skin lesions, weight loss or weight gain and skin rashes. Disease involves many organs like kidney, heart, lungs, heart and brain but commonly affected organs are skin, kidneys and joints. Etiology is usually autoimmune in which body produces immune response against its own antigens; certain genetic and environmental factors also contribute. Neonatal lupus occurs in mothers having SLE, in this case newborn baby have skin rash, liver problems and low blood cell counts; it is rare and most of the babies born with SLE mothers are healthy. These diseases usually have remissions and recurrences; symptoms usually go by their own and then recurrence occurs.  Lupus can occur at any age but people between ages of 15 & 45 years are commonly affected. Women of childbearing age are also very much affected. Symptoms could be mild, moderate or severe but usually lupus erythematosus is benign disease and 90% of diagnosed patients get relief by appropriate treatment. In this page, we are going to discuss about Lupus Erythematous and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lymphatic Drainage:  
Lymphatic Drainage: In this page, we are going to discuss about Lymphatic Drainage  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lymphedema:  
Lymphedema: Lymphedema is collection of fluid in tissues due to blockage of lymph vessels, lymph vessels are channels, which drain lymph from different tissues and return it to circulation. Lymph is filtered interstitial fluid, which is present in spaces between cells; lymph contains proteins, cell debris or degenerative cells, white blood cells and bacteria. Lymph collected from intestine also contains fats and lymph vessels carry these fats to liver for further metabolism.

Before draining to circulation lymph is passed trough lymph glands in which lymphocytes and antibodies are present which destroys any bacteria, foreign bodies and other germs present in lymph, lymph vessels have valves, which prevent backflow of lymph, lymph flow continues due to contraction of smooth muscles present in vessels, valves and compression from surrounding muscles and structures. When this mechanism fails due to various factors, fluid collects and results in swelling or edema.

Causes: Lymph edema may be congenital due to structural defects in lymphatic apparatus but it is rare or  it can be secondary to infections, lymph node removal  by surgery or by radiation, or lymph node enlargement, most common surgery is breast cancer surgery, in which lymph edema develops in arms,

Filariasis is  a parasitic infection in which lymph nodes are infected with parasites transmitted by mosquito bite and results in lymph  edema, tumors of lymph nodes or vessels can also lead to edema, certain skin conditions like cellulites can be  a  cause of lymphedema. Sometimes swelling is huge resulting in condition called Elephantiasis in which upper and lower limbs becomes enormously enlarge giving the appearance of an elephant.

Symptoms: There is huge swelling usually of upper or lower limb but breast and genitals can also be affected there is immobility and discomfort due to swelling, over lying skin is painful to touch and hard in chronic cases, there are increased chances of bacterial and fungal infections as well as scarring, sometimes cancer of lymph vessels develops due to chronic irritation, inflammation and disturbed immune system.

Diagnosis: CT and MRI scans are useful diagnostic tools, lymphangiography, scintigraphy and Doppler ultrasounds are some techniques to know the cause and extent of damage.

Treatment: There is no cure of this condition but elastic bandages and stockings, manual compression and drainage and exercises to ease flow of lymph by physiotherapists or patientís caretaker, in severe cases liposuction, can minimize swelling and cosmetic deformity and surgery is required.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Lymphedema  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Lymphogranuloma Venereum:  
Lymphogranuloma Venereum: Lymphogranuloma venereum is sexually transmitted infection caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is common in homosexual men and those having multiple sex partners. It appears as painful sores on genitals fever, fatigue and swollen lymph nodes. In majority of cases patient is asymptomatic or only nonspecific symptoms. It is very rare chlamydial infection. Treatment is antibiotic  and if left untreated can lead to complications like infertility in both sexes. In this page, we are going to discuss about Lymphogranuloma Venereum and types of Lymphogranuloma Venereum, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mad Dog Bite:  
Mad Dog Bite: You often heard about the incidents of mad dog bite in your town, why dogs get mad, and why they used to bite humans and other animals.

Usually dogs are friendly animals; they do not attack on humans until some body harm them. Mad dog syndrome is viral illness, which is caused by a family of viruses called rhabdoviruses. Dogs and other animals like foxes, bats, cats and cattle like horse, cows etc.

Can be infected but most common animal in urban setting is dog. virus infects the animal's brain and other organs and cause encephalitis which is inflammation of brain, and also peripheral nerves; as a result of infection animals develop unusual behavior and paralysis of body, animals become irritable and attack humans and viruses can be transmitted from dog to humans by infected saliva which is injected by teeth into human skin during biting.

Initial symptoms in humans are flu, fever and malaise later paralysis occurs. Signs, symptoms, and history of dog bite do diagnosis.

Treatment is done by immediate injection of vaccine and antibodies called HRIG or  human rabies immunological, along with antibiotics to prevent superimposed infection of   bite wound, it is controversial whether to suture the dog bite wound or not; but it is advisable to clean the wound by antiseptic solution and clean water and wound should be left open.

Counseling should be done to relieve fear and anxiety associated with bite.  Biting animal should be caught and handed over to Municipal Corporation because dogs are infectious and can bite more people around the vicinity.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Mad Dog Bite  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Malaria:  
Malaria: Malaria is well known all over the world now a days, it is a  parasitic infection caused by strains of parasite plasmodium, including, P. ovale, P.vivax, and P. falciparum, of which plasmodium falciparum is more dangerous form. It is caused by a bite of infected mosquito.Malaria is also called black water fever in case of complication causing sever hemorrhage  due to breakage of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin in urine. it is a serous complication and sometimes results in death due to renal failure Common signs and symptoms are fever with chills, vomiting, abdominal pain, body and muscle pain and decreased appetite. Treatment include complete bed rest, giving IV fluids to avoid dehydration. control of fever and vomiting, soft and energetic diet without oil and spices, strict watch on complication through clinical examination and lab tests  In this page, we are going to discuss about malaria and types of malaria, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Malignant Melanoma:  
Malignant Melanoma: It is less common but most dangerous form of skin cancer. It is the cancer occurring from melanocytes. 

Melanocytes are skin cells  and present in mucous membranes also like eyes and intestine, these cells are responsible for giving color to skin and produce a pigment called  melanin.

Risk factors for malignant melanoma are long-term exposure to sun light and ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation from occupational and environmental resources, atomic plants and genetics.

It arises as moles or nodules of different colors, irregular borders and rough surface, sometimes these lesions ulcerate, if existing moles change their color or shapes, it is the sign that they may have developed malignant change, along with these skin changes there is fatigue, malaise, loss of appetite and  weight loss.

With advanced stages if not promptly diagnosed and treated, these melanomas can spread to other organs like brain, liver, bones and lungs. Diagnosis of malignant melanomas is done by history, physical examination, CT can detect skin biopsy, metastasis or spread, and MRI scans.

Malignant melanoma treatment depends upon stage of cancer if melanoma is confined to upper skin layer it can be excised surgically but if it penetrates deeper layers or spread to other organs, patients will need radiotherapy and chemotherapy. To decrease the risk malignant melanomas, protective clothing and use of sun blocks should avoid sunrays and ultraviolet radiation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Malignant Melanoma  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Marfanís Syndrome:  
Marfan Syndrome: It is genetic disorder resulting in development defective connective tissue due to abnormal genes as child grows; people have family history of same   or other connective tissue disorders. Connective tissue is cement like the one substance comprises of elastic protein collagen and matrix, which connects different tissues and organs; it is present almost in every part of body including skin. Musculoskeletal system is most affected; other organs involved are heart, eyes, nervous system, and skin.

Symptoms: People with marfanís syndrome are unusually tall with slender   long limbs, flat feet, long face with short palate with overcrowded teeth, spinal cord has structural abnormalities like kyphosis or protruded curvature of thoracic spine or back, or scoliosis or abnormal inversion of lumbar spine or waist.

Protruded sternum or breast bone can result in lung compression and respiratory difficulty, eyes are affected resulting in early cataract, near sightedness, and glaucoma, most serious affected organ is heart, there could be heart valve defects or defects in large heart vessels presents as racing heart beat, lethargy, and shortness of breath, retinal detachment resulting in blindness and sudden death can occur in complicated cases. Skin has stretch marks without obesity and nervous system involvement cause pain numbness and weakness of lower limbs. 

Diagnosis: History and examination are enough to make the diagnosis; patients have specific appearance and skeletal deformity with family history of similar defects in close relatives.

Treatment: There is no specific treatment, patient should be kept in close observation under care of  orthopedic surgeon and physician, cardiologist and  eye specialist to diagnose the complications at earlier stage, sometimes  orthopedic surgery or devices  are used  before puberty to limit the skeletal deformities, it is very depressing condition and people should give psychological and emotional support to patient  and if possible psychologist should be included in treatment to counsel affected person, physiotherapy and aerobic exercises are helpful to overcome lung problems due to deformed upper skeleton.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Marfan Syndrome  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Marfanís Syndrome:  
Marfan's Syndrome: It is genetic disorder of defective connective tissue which affects many organs at a time.   Name marfan's syndrome is derived after the work of scientist with the name of Marfan who first discovered the genetic causes of disease.

Syndrome affects skeletal system, skin, joint tissue, heart, blood vessels, lungs, brain and spinal cord. Most commonly affected parts are musculoskeletal; patients have abnormally long heights, with slender arms, hands and feet. Spinal cord has abnormal curvatures like scoliosis and kyphosis with lower back pain. Skin has stria or wrinkles without any cause, joints are pain full with increased flexibility.

Most dangerous outcomes are due to involvement of heart lung and eyes. heart has valve defects and aortic dilatation, patients can suffer sudden death due to aortic rupture, air is collected outside the lungs in pleural cavity instead of lung alveoli and can be compressed; condition is called tension pneumothorax, this is also very distressing condition, patients have week eye sight due to displacement of eye lens and even blindness s due to retinal detachment. Patients can inherit this disease into their future generation.

Diagnosis is obvious by physical examination  and  history but universal criteria for diagnosis is presence of at least four skeletal signs with one or two signs relating to other organs, prevention of cardiac and eye complications  and genetic counseling  are main goals directed towards well being of patients.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Marfan's Syndrome  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mastitis:  
Mastitis: Mastitis is inflammation of breasts tissue. It can be puerperal mastitis or non puerperal mastitis. Puerperal mastitis is more common and occurs after child birth when woman is breast feeding, or during the weaning period when she wants to discontinue breast feeding and keep her child on foods.

Mastitis ca also occurs during pregnancy. Puerperal mastitis usually occurs due to cracked nipples, use of only one breast for feeding, in case of engorgement of breasts due to non feeding if baby dies after birth or in case of abortion.

Milk collected in breast ducts and cause swelling, pain and inflammation. Non puerperal mastitis can occur due to breast cancer, diabetes, ad immune compromised sate of women.

Symptoms of mastitis are painful, tender, swollen breasts; there is enlargement of lymph glands in armpits. Fever, chills, and body aches are present. In case of beast engorgement milk is seen dribbling from breast, nipples have cracks, and sores.

Mastitis is diagnosed by physical examination and blood tests, white cell count is increased, and sometime culture of breast secretion is done to know about organism, mammography is advised in suspicious cases.

General measures like expression of breast milk, hot packs applied to breast, local antiseptic lotion for sore nipples are very effective, oral and inject able antibiotics are required in more severe cases with fever. If abscess forms then drainage is necessary which is done by breast surgeon.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Mastitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mayocarditis:  
Mayocarditis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Mayocarditis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Measles:  
Measles (Khasra): Measles is viral infection  and has a high morbidity and mortality specifically in children in underdeveloped countries due to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition, Vitamin A plays an important  role in its prevention  as recent studies suggest, which is deficient in diets of these children. Measles appears as fever malaise,  myalgia, flu and red eyes  as other viral infection do, later after 4 or 5 days maculopapular rash appear on head and face spreading down to whole body, great care has to be taken for patients with measles otherwise it may result in complications like bronchitis, otitis media, pneumonia,  and even meningitis resulting in death.Fortunately vaccine has become a part of global program for eradication of measles and its mortality rate is declining. In this page, we are going to discuss about Measles and its symptoms, the per-eruptive stage, the exanthematous stage, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Meckelís Diverticulum:  
Meckel's Diverticulum: It is small longitudinal pouch, which arises from small intestine and usually present in ileum. It is remnant of vitelline duct. Vitelline duct is duct which provides nutrition to developing intestine from yolk sac in embryonic life, after 6 to 8 weeks  of gestation this duct regress in size and disappears but in small portion of population it persist as meckelís diverticulum and present at birth.

It is more common in males. It has all the three layers of small intestine sometimes it contains stomach or pancreatic mucosa with its glands.

Symptom:  Most of the time it remain asymptomatic, in small percentage  of people symptoms appear in childhood including blood in stool or black stools, intestinal obstruction leading to severe abdominal or epigastria pain  and fullness is present  accompanied by  nausea, vomiting fever and lethargy.

Sometimes it presents as strangulated umbilical hernia with umbilical swelling and pain. Symptoms are difficult to diagnose from acute appendicitis.

Diagnosis: Abdominal ultrasound and CT scan do it. However, they are not so accurate. The most accurate test is technetium 99 m scan in which diverticulum is scanned by radioisotope material. Treatment: choice of treatment is surgical resection.

It is done through laparoscopy. However, if bowel obstruction or hernia is present laparotomy with resection of adjoining bowel is necessary.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Meckel's Diverticulumand symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Melaena:  
Melaena: Melena is passage of black stools due to presence of old blood. Bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract is usually the cause.

Lower GI tract bleeding results in fresh red colored blood in stool. In melena iron present in hemoglobin undergoes oxidation and gives black color to stool. Melena can be a symptom pf some dangerous underlying diseases so it should be diagnosed and treated efficiently.

Causes: Most common cause of melena is peptic ulcer, either in stomach or duodenum, ulcers can bleed resulting in melena, other causes are gastritis, esophageal varices in which esophageal veins are dilated and   are prone to rupture and can cause bleeding, other causes are tears in esophagus due to excessive retching or vomiting, tumors or cancers of upper GI tract can also cause melena. 

Melena can be a part of generalized diseases like blood disorders such as hemophilia, or clotting factors deficiencies or thrombocytopenia in which platelets are decreases resulting in bleeding in various parts of body along with GI tract.

Diagnosis: Stool examination detects the presence of occult blood, it is carried out by simple test called stool D/R. Blood test reveals the presence of anemia or decreased hemoglobin due to chronic bleeding, or decreased number of platelets or thrombocytopenia.

History of taking drugs is necessary because black stools can result from iron supplements and some other drugs like anti coagulants. Sometimes endoscopy is required to detect internal cause.

Treatment: Treatment is according to cause because it is itself a symptom not a disease.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Melaena and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Melancholia:  
Melancholia: It is defined as state of extreme sadness, loss of interest in surroundings, slow body movements, lack of pleasure, depressed mood, and physical symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite and early morning awakening.

Melancholia is often associated with clinical depression and other psychotic disorders, like bipolar disorders or schizophrenia. Melancholia is not just mood disorder but it is due to the biological brain function imbalance, it should be taken seriously like any medical disorder.

Melancholia can affect any age but it more common in old age and male sand female prevalence is equal. Melancholic patients are sad all the time with feeling of guilt and grief and lack of physical activity and interests, they loose weight and get thin and anorexic, they want to be alone and do not involve in recreational activities.

Exact cause is unknown but there is some genetic predisposition for this order. For, mild cases psychotherapy and anti depressants are used, severe cases leading to physical complications like extreme weight loss and trial of suicide are required hospitalization in psychiatric hospital where electro convulsive therapy or electric shocks are given.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Melancholia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Membranous Glomerulonephritis:  
Membranous Glomerulonephritis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Membranous Glomerulonephritis  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Menieres Disease:  
Menieres Disease: Meniereís disease is disorder of inner ear,  it is caused by excessive pressure of fluid in ear canals; which are semicircular canals normally filled with fluid;  these canals with help of auditory nerve help maintain balance body and responsible for hearing  after receiving and processing visual stimuli.

Meniereís disease usually affects unilateral ear but in 50% cases bilateral ears are affected, cause of meneireís disease is unknown but it can occur after head injury or fall, infections of middle or inner ear, in alcoholics, by overdose of some medications, stress, or follow viral infections. It can cause severe disability and accidental trauma due to loss of hearing and body balance.

Symptoms are usually heaviness or fullness in ear, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus or ringing in ear, dizziness or vertigo specifically positional vertigo which is induced or aggravated by change of position and hearing loss, abnormal eye movements called nystagmus are also present.

Symptoms occur in attacks and often relapse. Hearing becomes normal between the attacks. Diagnosis is made by history, examination, and hearing tests. Sometimes MRI scans are necessary to make differential diagnosis. Treatment is mostly symptomatic, patients are advised to stay in home and avoid heavy work or exercises to avoid any accident, which can occur due to balance loss and vertigo.

In this page, we are going to discuss about menieres disease and types of menieres disease, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Meningitis Fever:  
Meningitis Fever: Meningitis is inflammation of membranes of brain and of spinal cord.There are variety of organisms which cause it like bacteria, viruses, fungi and moreover it is also caused  by other factors like drug allergy, chemical irritation and is also a complication of many tumors. It is particularly lethal in children if not properly treated.When person gets infected he or she develop fever, mental state changes, headache, nausea and vomiting, and very important sign is neck stiffness which is called Meningitis. Children develop same conditions along with poor feeding, irritability decreased consciousness and abnormal posture of body with head and neck arched backwards.Meningitis is medical emergency and should be treated actively and patient should be hospitalized immediately. In  this page, we are going to discuss about Meningitis Fever and types of Meningitis Fever, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Menopause:  
Menopause: It is the cessation of ovarian function with failure to produce ova and stoppage of menstrual cycle or flow at specific age. Age at which menopause appear vary from women to women but average age of menopause is 45 to 55 years.

It can occur early or late depending on various factors, like racial and ethnic group, presence of any disease and genetics. Diseases like polycystic ovarian syndrome or endometriosis can cause early menopause, surgical removal of ovaries can also cause early menopause.

Asian women develop menopause at earlier age then European women. Family history of menopause counts a lot, if woman develops menopause late then more likely her daughter will also develop it at late age.

When ovaries stop functioning, they stop to secrete hormone called estrogen, estrogen is the main hormone, which is responsible for uterine stimulation and cause release of some hormones from brain, which are responsible for normal menstrual cycle and cause menstrual flow.

Most of women donot directly go to cessation of menstruation but before that, there is period of scant or very little menstrual flow, within couple of years this flow gradually disappeared.

There are other symptoms of menopause also like hot flushes, anxiety and depression, vaginal dryness, breast tenderness, night sweats. Not all women experience these symptoms; most of the women have no symptoms except absence of menstruation.

Women after menopause cannot conceive and become infertile. Lack of estrogen also makes bones prone to degeneration and chances of osteoporosis are increased due to decreased calcium absorption and deposition in bones. Menopause is natural physiological change in womenís lives and it needs to be accepted with open mind. With improved diet and regular exercise, symptoms of menopause can be reduced to varying extent.

Women should take increased calcium and more proteins in their diet. Yoga and meditation are also used to delay the process and give strength to mind and relieve anxiety and depression which most women experience around menopausal years.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Menopause and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Menorrhagia:  
Menorrhagia: Excessive menstrual flow often with blood clots with normal intervals between menstrual cycle sis called menorrhagia. Physiological menorrhagia can occur after menarche and before menopause.

Causes of menorrhagia are uterine infections, hormonal imbalances, iron deficiency, clotting disorders like decreased platelet count, use of drugs like blood thinners or anticoagulants, and oral contraceptives, presence of polyps or tumors in uterus like fibroids. fibroids are common tumors which cause excessive menstrual flow, intrauterine contraceptive devices can cause excessive flow by mechanical irritation or trauma.

Menorrhagia is very dangerous condition because due to blood loss woman become weak and anemic and can go into complications like shock, cardiac failure and kidney and liver disorders, symptoms of menorrhagia are weakness, pale skin and eyes, headaches, pain and discomfort in pelvic region, and lower limbs, swelling of body, obesity or weight loss, anxiety and depression due to managing excessive flow. Sometime mass is palpable in abdomen due to fibroid or uterine tumors.  Main tools of diagnosing menorrhagia are ultrasound and hormonal measurements.

Treatment depends on cause, hormonal treatment is given with multivitamins and iron supplements and drugs to stop bleeding, tumors and cancers require surgical removal, unresponsive cases require hysterectomy or removal of uterus.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Menorrhagia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Menstrual Period:  
Menstrual Period: In this page, we are going to discuss about Menstrual Period and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mercury:  
Mercury: Mercury is an element present in nature in metallic organic or inorganic forms. It is used to prepare mercury thermometer, light bulbs, batteries and florescent lights.

Mercury fumes can vaporizes in air resulting in contamination of air, water and soil and can cause lethal toxicity, mercury is also present in shell fish grown in mercury polluted water and consumption of this fish results in chronic poisoning. Accidental poisoning is common in children where they ingest batteries and broken pieces of thermometers.

Symptoms: Mercury poisoning results in variety of symptoms depending on type of mercury and duration of exposure. Children and infants can develop poor mental growth and cognitive function and memory loss. Pregnant ladies exposed to mercury can have poor development of their babyís brains.

In adults muscle weakness, disturbances in taste, speech and walking is present, there is abnormal sensation like pins and needles in feet and hands, other manifestations are headache, lack of sleep, emotional signs like mood swings, irritability anxiety and depression. High toxic doses can lead to extensive kidney, gastrointestinal and nervous system damage. Local skin contact leads to skin rashes and dermatitis.

Diagnosis: IT is made by measuring mercury levels in blood. X ray, CT   and MRI scans are useful to detect ingested pieces of broken thermometer and batteries in body.

Treatment: It depends on type of mercury exposure. In case of inhaled vapor immediate oxygen supplementation with ventilator support is given, in case of local dermal contact, source should be eliminated and affected area is washed out with plain water.

In case of ingestion aggressive stomach wash has to be done, activated charcoal and laxatives can be used to eliminate the poison from gastrointestinal tract. Chelating agents are also helpful in binding the toxic dose. In severe poisoning dialysis is the final option.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Mercury and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mesetric Adenitis:  
Mesetric Adenitis: It is inflammation of lymph nodes present in mesentery. Mesentery is the sheath which covers abdominal organs to abdominal walls, it contains blood vessels, nerves and lymph nodes, lymph nodes are round or oval small glands, lymph nodes are attached to different organs and other lymph nodes by lymph channels.

If organs draining the lymph nodes are severely infected, pathogens enter the lymph nodes through lymph ducts and cause swelling of these glands. Then these glands are full of dead bacteria and white blood cells. Lymph nodes contain white blood cells and other immune cells which kill pathogen entering in abdomen and its various organs.

Causes: intestinal infections, inflammations and tumors all are causes of mesenteric lymphatics, various viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation results in intestinal infections. Abdominal tuberculosis and inflammatory bowel disease are major causes of its development.

Symptoms: Patient presents with fever, chills, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting.  Symptoms very likely resemble symptoms of acute appendicitis so it is very difficult to diagnose it. Diagnosis: It is done in abdominal x rays and ultrasound.

Treatment: Antibiotics, intravenous fluids and rest to patient, do Treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Mesetric Adenitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Metabolic Acidosis:  
Metabolic Acidosis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Metabolic Acidosis  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Metabolic Alkolosis:  
Metabolic Alkolosis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Metabolic Alkolosis  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Methanol:  
Methanol: Methanol is very dangerous compound also called wood alcohol, it very much resembles to alcohol but sweeter then it. It is a constituent of paint removers, thinners, coolants and  varnishes. It s also used as fuel, both as domestic fuel as in stoves and also in vehicle fuels.  It is used in laboratories as solvent. Methanol is highly lethal poison. The unique characteristic of its poisoning is that it can cause blindness within minute to hours after local contact or ingestion.

Symptoms: After ingestion of poison patient develops nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision, dizziness, agitation, fatigue or lethargy, muscle cramps, and breathing difficulty; if not treated it readily progresses to convulsions, or seizures, low blood pressure,  agitated behavior, come and apnea or complete cessation of respiration, blindness is very distressing complication in survivors.

Hemorrhagic pancreatitis, metabolic acidosis and brain necrosis and hemorrhage are usual complication and threat to good outcome.

Diagnosis: Definitive diagnosis is made by measuring serum methanol levels. Retinography and slit lamp eye examination helps to diagnose level of eye damage. Pupils are dilated and there is cyanosis of finger and nails. CT and MRI scans are useful to detect brain hemorrhage and necrosis.

Treatment: Prompt treatment is necessary to prevent lethal complication and disability due to blindness. Methanol is easily removed by hem dialysis. There is antidote available and should immediately be given with basic ventilation and hemodynamic support. Correction of metabolic acidosis, fluid therapy for correction of electrolyte imbalance and artificial ventilation is necessary to stable the condition of patient.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Methanol and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Migraine:  
Migraine: In this page, we are going to discuss about Migraine and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mild Acute Radiation Sickness:  
Mild Acute Radiation Sickness: It is also called radiation syndrome or radiation toxicity. If a person is expose for minutes to ionizing radiation of 50 rays or more, acute radiation sickness develops. Persons who are at risk are people working in atomic radiations plants, although rare, but people exposed to  radiations in  hospitals, teaching institutes,  radiation reactors are also at risk. Atomic radiations are very dangerous rays which can cause destruction and mutations of body cells. Mutations are genetic changes in genes or DNA of cells; they act by depositing energy in cells resulting in temporarily or permanent damage to cells. Although it is a rare occurrence but large amount of radiation can cause illness within hours to days and death within 60 days of exposure. In case of extreme exposure it causes death in few hours.When exposed patients develop nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea; amount of diarrhea depends on amount of radiation. Extent of damage depends on time, period, dose of radiation and type of organ exposed, even if patient survives there are great chances of development of cancer later in life. In this page, we are going to discuss about mild acute radiation sickness and Haemopoietic Syndrome treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mitral Regurgitation:  
Mitral Regurgitation: Backflow of blood from left ventricle of heart to left atrium due to dysfunction or improper closure of mitral valve is called mitral regurgitation, it can be acute or chronic, most common cause of mitral regurgitation are mitral valve prolapse, myxomatous degeneration, endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, connective tissue disorders like marfanís syndrome, Ehlers Danlos syndrome, ischemic heart disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy, all these disease destroy the normal valve leaflets or doors which close on ventricular contraction and prevents backflow of blood.

Acute cases present with pulmonary edema manifesting as shortness of breath especially on lying down and on exertion and in night time and palpitation. Some cases are complicated to end up in congestive cardiac failure presenting as swelling on body, or cardiogenic shock, with low blood pressure and unconsciousness. Chronic cases may be asymptomatic or decompensate after many years.

Like all valve defects it is diagnosed by Echocardiography, ECG and Doppler studies, x ray chest shows pulmonary edema in early stages with normal heart size. Enlarged heart in chronic cases.

Asymptomatic cases a can be left untreated with advices to decreased workload on heart like mild regular exercise, life style changes like low salt and fat diet and control of blood pressure  levels;. Symptomatic cases are treated with drugs like vasodilators, antibiotics, and anti platelet and anti thrombotic drugs .Valve surgery either repair or replacement of valve is done in decompensated cases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Mitral Regurgitation and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mitral Stenosis:  
Mitral Stenosis: Mitral stenosis is defined as narrowing or occlusion of mitral valve opening which disrupts blood flow between two chambers of heart.

Mitral valve is small valve which is present between left atrium and left ventricle of heart and allows passage of blood and prevents back flow between the two chambers, stenosis or occlusion of valve occurs secondary to inflammation and fibrosis, most common cause is rheumatic heart disease, other causes are infective endocarditis, or congenital or birth defects.

Stenosed valve cannot function properly and cause congestive heart failure and lung edema. If only small portion of valve is affected then there are no symptoms, marked stenosis results in shortness of breath especially in night and on lying down, body swelling, chest pain, palpitation and weakness.

Diagnosis is made by physical examination, Echocardiography, ECG findings .On physical examination; heart murmurs are found which is abnormal heart sounds heard on auscultation of chest.

ECG has characteristic pattern. Asymptomatic cases need only wait and watch strategy, symptomatic cases requires treatment of cause like antibiotics for endocarditis and valve replacement or repairing surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Mitral Stenosis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Motion Sickness:  
Motion Sickness: Any illness, which arises due to rapid movement or during long or repeated periods of travel, is called motion sickness. It is common in airplane employees, cabin crew workers, and drivers or even in common people who travel often or riding in boats or swings in amusement parks. Depending on type of travel, it is also called sea sickness or air sickness.

Common symptoms are nausea, vomiting, dizziness or vertigo, fatigue, headache, light-hardheadedness, and malaise. Motion sickness is common problem in people who travel frequently. Symptoms of motion sickness mostly but not always resolve when motion stops; motion sickness can be prevented by variety of medications and by adopting preventive measures.

Avoid  spicy and oily food before flight or driving, drinking a lot of water, have  proper ventilation by opening windows of vehicle, don't read during travel, don't sit on seat facing backwards, in case of sea sickness person should be on upper and front part of ship and doing deep breathing exercises before and during the travel. All these measures significantly improve the outcome in these people and decrease the morbidity of this disorder, various medications are available now.

Consult  your doctor before long travel or flights if you have this problem. Some herbal remedies are helpful in this situation; like ginger which very useful for this condition; acupuncture also helps in these patients. Overall motion sickness is mild illness and preventable and treatable.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Motion Sickness and types of Motion Sickness, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Mumps:  
Mumps: Mumps is viral disease and infects usually children but can occur any time in life. Once it occurs it gives life long immunity. Virus infects salivary glands and swelling appears on face due to inflammation of parotid gland which is largest salivary gland. Salivary glands are present in mouth and produce saliva which is secretion helps to lubricate the food while chewing and  also lubricate mouth, associated with swelling there is high grade fever cough, pain on face, irritability  and difficulty in talking and chewing. In boys it can cause inflammation of testes and cause orchids, in that case testicular swelling with pain will be present.It is self limiting illness and vaccination is available for its prevention. In this page, we are going to discuss about mumps and types of mumps, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Musculoskeletal:  
Musculoskeletal: Abdominal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculosis infection of gastrointestinal tract and various organs and structures found in abdomen like peritoneum, mesenteries or lymph nodes. Any part of   digestive system can be involved from esophagus to rectum.

Usually most affected part is iliocecal region where small intestine merges with large intestine, less common parts are esophagus, and lower part of stomach. When ileocecal part is  involved then symptoms are malabsorption, weight loss, various nutrient deficiencies, pain and swelling in right lower part of abdomen, adhesion and strictures can result in obstruction and patient can present with vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain and distension, ulcers can  be form in intestine resulting in melena or black stools or bloody stools.

Esophageal T.B produces difficulty in swallowing and blood in sputum. In case of involved peritoneum, ascites or collection of fluid in abdomen is seen.

There are various methods to detect abdominal T.B including plain x-ray or barium enema or meal, endoscopy, CT and MRI scans. Laparoscopy is accurate tool for diagnosis. Laparoscopy is both of diagnostic and curative value, in case of obstruction surgery can be done by laparoscopy or by open incision or laparotomy.
In this page, we are going to discuss about Musculoskeletal and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Myasthenia Gravis:  
Myasthenia Gravis: It is an autoimmune disorder in which muscles in body become weak and cause progressive paralysis due to formation of antibodies, which attack muscles and block neuromuscular transmission.

Muscles of eye are most commonly affected along with muscles of face, which are responsible for chewing, speaking and esophageal muscles. In severe cases, muscles of limbs and respiratory muscles are also affected resulting in respiratory difficulty and life threatening condition.

Causes of myasthenia gravis are many, including genetic causes, Thymomas which are tumors of thymus gland, (thymus gland is situated in neck and produce antibodies) thyroid diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune disorders.

Symptoms are progressive weakness of muscles aggravated by exertion, and relieved by rest, drooping of eyelids, blurred speech, difficulty in speaking and swallowing, and respiratory difficulty.

Diagnosis is made by detection of antibodies on serological tests, EMG studies, and electrophoresis; x ray chest, CT and MRI scan to detect thymomas and thyroid diseases.

Treatment depends on cause, severity, mild case is treated with immunosuppressive drugs, physiotherapy, and plasma exchange, severe cases requires intubations, artificial respiration. Surgery is required to remove tumors like thymomas.

In this page, we are going to discuss about myasthenia gravis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Myelitis:  
Myelitis: It is inflammation of spinal cord and its membranes spinal cord consists of bundle of nerves which run through vertebral column and send and receive impulses from brain and connect brain and body organs through nerves, spinal cord is secured by network of bones called vertebral column, protective membranes which cover spinal cord from outside  are collectively  called meninges.

Causes of myelitis are usually viruses like polio virus, measles virus; some enteroviruses and herpes simplex virus. Myelitis is usually complication of these viral diseases and once it developed it become progressive and can permanently damage spinal cord and cause disability.

Before the global vaccination programs poliomyelitis caused by polio virus was one of the most common cause of myelitis in children and cause paralysis of limbs and resulting deformity. Other causes of myelitis are bacterial infections, spinal cord injuries and meningitis.

Symptoms of myelitis are fever, headache, neck rigidity and stiffness, muscle weakness, and loss of sensations, bladder control lost in end stages. A diagnosis of myelitis is made by x-ray spine, CT and MRI scans.

Treatment is through anti inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and antibiotics and supportive treatment. Cause must be treated for better prognosis, physiotherapy is effective in case of complications like limb deformity or muscle atrophy to restore the normal function to most possible levels, child hood vaccination is necessary to prevent this order as complication of viral illnesses.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Myelitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Myeloma:  
Myeloma: Myeloma is a term applied to cancer of bone marrow cells called plasma cells. Plasma cells are precursors of antibodies; antibodies are natural proteins present in body, which provides defense against foreign particles and infections and are part of immune system.

In myeloma, abnormal plasma cells are produce by bone marrow, which are called myeloma cells, these cells cannot do the normal function, which plasma cells do, and body's defense fails. Myeloma affects bones of skull, pelvis, shoulder, hips, ribs and spinal cord.

Myeloma is a common type of blood cancers and relatively more common in males as compared to females.

It usually occurs in old age after 55 but can occur in young adults also. Exact etiology of this cancer is unknown but various factors like exposure to radiations, various chemicals, viral infections and immunocompromised state of body predisposes to its  initiation, resulting in  mutations in DNA of plasma cells  and abnormal plasma cells are produced by bone marrow in large amounts  which circulate in body.

Mutations are abnormal changes in genes resulting in change in cell's morphology and physiology.

Symptoms are malaise, fever, weight loss, decreased appetite, bone pain, bone fractures, anemia and infections. Diagnosis is made by blood tests; detection of antibodies in serums of patients called paraproteins which are secreted by cancerous plasma cells.

Bone marrow biopsy, CT and MRI scans are also helpful, Myeloma is treatable cancer but survival rate is not that good. Radiations, chemotherapy and steroids are effective and stem cell transplants or bone marrow transplant is necessary in end stage diseases.

In this page, we are going to discuss about myeloma and types of myeloma, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Myocardial Infarction:  
Myocardial Infarction: Myocardial infarction is commonly known as heart attack, it results from the ischemia or oxygen deprivation of heart musculature due to blockage of arteries, which supply blood to heart.

There is variety of factors, which can block the arteries such as atherosclerosis or thickening of vessels by deposits of cholesterol, and palatals, which is known as clot, by embolism, either thrombo embolism or fat embolism, spasm due to stress or other factors.

Risk factors for development of M.I are hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, smoking, old age, and chronic stresses of life both physical and emotional, lack of exercise, obesity or excessive weight, inflammatory diseases involving blood vessels or heart muscles and alcohol consumption.

Symptoms are chest pain radiating to arms, jaws and shoulders, heartburn, sweating, nausea, vomiting, weakness and vertigo. Sometimes symptoms are not present, called silent M.I, silent M.I is major cause of heart related deaths. Sometimes only mild symptoms are there like dull pain, or heartburn.

Diagnosis is done by ECG, Echocardiography and measurement of cardiac enzymes in blood, which are elevated within few hours to days of an attack. Angiography is needed to detect the involved coronary artery.

In emergency immediate oxygen supplementation and sublingual anti thrombotic drugs and vasodilators are given; further treatment depends on the extent of damage and angiography findings, if more then 90% of the coronary  artery is  blocked then cardiac by pass surgery is indicated, if narrowing is less then this then angioplasty is recommended. Anticoagulant therapy is prescribed after the procedures and patient have to remain on therapy for whole life.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Myocardial Infarction  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nauralgia Of The Tresticles:  
Nauralgia Of The Tresticles: Pain in testes due to involvement of nerves, which supply its musculature, skin and surrounding structures, is called testicular neuralgia.

Most common nerve which is involved is pudendal nerve with its branches, nerve also  innervates pelvis, rectum, and area involving urethra in males and same structures along with vagina and  vulva in females, pudendal nerves may get inflamed, damaged by trauma, or fractures, compressed by spinal tumors or any mass lesions and can be  trapped in muscle and ligament compartments.

It is also affected by autoimmune disorders. Factors, which predispose to testicular neuralgia, are prolonged sitting positions like working in office and car driving for long hours, some exercises and sports that cause trauma and injury to pelvic area like bicycling and weight lifting.

Symptoms are slow evolving pain or abrupt intense pain in testes on one or both sites depending upon the sites of nerve involved, along with abnormal sensation like needles, pricking in area around testes and anus.

There may be loss of sensation, hotness or burning sensation, there could be difficulty in walking, erection, defecation and urination, testes may be retracted or reduced in size in case of chronic pain with loss of sexual function.

There are variety of ways to diagnose testicular neuralgia, good history and examination is sufficient to make the diagnosis but CT, MRI scans  , nerve conduction studies and electromyography or EMG which is graphical recording of muscle activity are helpful to differentiae between  the causes.

X rays can also detect compressions of nerves due to fracture and trauma. Mild cases of pain like due to prolonged same postures, trauma are treated by painkillers, both local or in oral form like tablets, and anti inflammatory drugs. Physiotherapy is also recommended, pudendal nerve block is another method to relieve pain. Surgery is required for more severe cases like removal of nerve compression, to reduce fractures, and to remove tumors which possibly compress the nerves.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Basic Investigations  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nausea And Vomiting:  
Nausea And Vomiting: Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms and most of the people experienced them sometimes in their lives.

Nausea and vomiting are secondary to some internal body problem or disease. Nausea is unpleasant revolving feeling inside stomach or chest without vomiting. Vomiting is forceful propulsive expulsion of stomach contents through mouth.

Vomiting consists of either food particles, blood, brown mucous secretion mixed with food or bile( bile is green colored secretion which is secreted by liver and green in  color )or it could be only water.

Vomiting is sometimes mild and resolves by its own or by medication but sometimes; it continues even with medication and results in dehydration and fluid and electrolyte imbalance in body.

Causes: Nausea and vomiting are mostly due to some gastrointestinal infections or secondary to some diseases like liver  and kidney diseases , vomiting can also result after taking some drugs like pain killers, antibiotics  and  chemotherapeutic drugs, migraine.

A kind of headache can also result in nausea and vomiting, motion sickness is another major cause, head injury, some brain infection or brain tumors can result in it along with vertigo.

Pregnancy is major cause of nausea and vomiting in first trimester especially. Various stimuli can result in vomiting like dirty smells, Sights and even some foods disliked by a person because vomiting is controlled by higher centers in brain, which also controls smell, taste and visual functions.

Diagnosis: History and examination are major tools to detect the cause of nausea and vomiting.

Treatment: Treatment depends on cause. There are effective drugs available now a day to correct nausea and vomiting due to any cause, either in oral form or in form of intravenous therapy.

Some herbal remedies are effective in controlling these symptoms as if lemon and ginger are well known effective commonly used items to relieve nausea and vomiting. Removal of initiating stimulus, like in motion sickness cessation of movement stops the symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about nausea and vomiting  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Neck And Shoulder:  
Neck And Shoulder: Neck and shoulder are two sensitive structures because of wide range of movements and proximity of vital nerves and blood vessels, there are numerous causes of pain in these areas like bone and joints diseases, injury to muscles, tendons and ligaments which is called sprain commonly. Nerve entrapment disorders, inflammations and rarely tumors are also the cause. Risk factors for pain are wrong adopted postures, disc prolapse, over activity, imbalanced diet with lack of calcium and vitamin D, certain occupations and work like sports, athletes, players, and children are more prone to pain in these areas; women are at risk because of loss of calcium from bone inn child birth and after menopause. Old people are specially affected due to aging process and calcium and vitamin D deficiency and loss of activity. Often pain is associated with numbness, weakness and loss of mobility. Diagnosis of neck and shoulder pain is made by history, examination, x rays, blood calcium and vitamin D levels and bone density tests, and in severe cases CT and MRI scans, treatment involves pain killers, hot or cold fomentation, orthopedic devices like cervical collars and splints, local massage of anti-inflammatory, and pain killer ointments, and even surgery in case of complicated cases. Proper diet containing milk and dairy products, light exercise and right postures during work and sleep greatly help in minimizing this type of pain.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Neck And Shoulder  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nerve Root Entrament:  
Nerve Root Entrament: Nerves can be entrapped or compressed in spinal cord columns when they run through them, because the foramina or openings between the back bones which occupy spinal cord are narrow, nerves can be easily compressed in them by swelling, inflammation or any mass. Nerves can also be entrapped in ligament and bony compartments beside spinal cord. Symptoms vary from, pain, numbness, weakness in innervated part, abnormal sensation or in chronic cases muscle atrophy or even paralysis can occur.

Nerves are covered by protective sheaths called meninges which protect nerves from injuries; in case of compression demyelination occurs and protective cover is lost and nerve cam rapidly become dead. Risk factors for nerve entrapments are prolonged compression by own body parts in some postures, like prolonged sitting on one side, pregnancy, severe edema.,  spinal cord inflammations, injuries and tumors, diabetes, collection of blood or hematoma, fractures and dislocations of bone sand joints.

Diagnosis is helped by x-rays, CT and MRI scans and nerve conduction studies. Treatment of nerve entrapment involves removing the etiological factor like edema and inflammations can be treated by drugs, tumors can be resected and hematomas are drained by surgery, alignment of fractures and dislocation require orthopedic treatment, pregnancy induced nerve entrapments usually resolve after child birth and requires only supportive treatment. 

In this page, we are going to discuss about Nerve Root Entrament  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nervous Headache:  
Nervous Headache: Nervous headache is headache, which arises from nervous tension like stress, depression, emotions like fear, anger and anxiety, long working hours, or working in noisy place, working under pressure, failure to achieve some target or failure to fulfill some wish, it is often associated with feeling of sadness and loneliness.

According to one research, people living in overcrowded busy urban areas are more prone to develop nervous headaches. Nervous headache feels like pressure or weight on head, neck, or face; pain is dull, throbbing, or piercing in type often associated with feeling to live in isolated calm environment, nervous headaches are aggravated by noise, crowed, sleep deprivation, hunger, and thirst.

It is sometimes associated with vertigo. Diagnosis is easily made by history. There is no association with internal disease and it is not a very dangerous type of headache. Rest, sedatives, treats nervous headache or sleeping pills, taking some refreshing juice or coffee or tea, herbal remedies are effective more in this type then allopathic medicines.

In this page, we are going to discuss about nervous headache and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Neurological Disease:  
Neurological Disease: In this page, we are going to discuss about neurological disease and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Neutrophils:  
Neutrophils: Neutrophils are type of white blood cells present in human body. They belong to category of polymorphonuclear cells because they have their nucleus divided into many parts.

Neutrophils are most abundant cells in white blood cell family, they constitute about 60 to 70 % of white blood cells , they are the first cell  which  migrate to site of inflammation and responsible for formation of pus.

Neutrophils are highly effective to kill bacteria. In process of killing, they first identify the foreign bacteria by certain surface markers, then they release some toxins and chemicals, which kill bacteria, and then they engulf the microorganism by a process called phagocytosis.

Toxins and chemicals are present in granules of neutrophils, which are dispersed in cytoplasm of neutrophils. Neutrophils continuously circulate in blood, they have short half-life of 4 to 5 days then they die and new neutrophils enter the blood stream produced by bone marrow.

Increased neutrophil count is called neutrophilia and it is present in bacterial infections, and some cancers. Decreased nuetrophil count is present in viral infections and immune disorders and called neutropenia. Neutrophils are very important cells in body and if their formation is disturbed then body is prone to many dangerous bacterial infections which can be life threatening.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Neutrophils and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nicotine:  
Nicotine: Nicotine is commonly used by smokers in form of cigarettes, patches and gums. Nicotine poisoning is common in chronic smokers and in people working in industries preparing insecticides.

Nicotine can also be absorbed through skin and poisoning is also common in farmers engaged in cultivation and harvesting tobacco crops. Large doses of nicotine can rapidly absorbed through skin and can cause death. Most common routes of poisoning are inhalation and sniffing. Nicotine initially stimulates nicotine receptors and then cause neuromuscular blockage.

Symptoms: Overdose causes nausea, vomiting, headache, respiratory difficulty, increased heart rate, sweating, dizziness progressing to weakness and episodes of fainting. Nicotine poisoning is more dangerous then other substances of same class like cocaine, its poisoning very much resemble insecticide poisoning.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Nicotine and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nicotinic Acid:  
Nicotinic Acid: Nicotinic acid is also called niacin or vitamin B3, it is type of water soluble vitamin and found in green leafy vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, meat and dairy products like egg, cheese, and yogurt.

Nicotinic acid is required for normal body metabolism and takes part in many chemical reactions involving   respiration and energy release or production.

Nicotinic acid deficiency leads to slow metabolism and decreased energy production resulting in weakness, low concentration and decreased tolerance to cold in adults and decreased IQ and poor growth is a consequence of its deficiency in children.

Severe deficiency  of nicotinic acid in diet  cause a deadly disease called pellagra which constitute 4 Dís including dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis and death; person suffering from this disease has skin inflammation, hyper pigmentation, scaling and roughness of skin, memory loss and  severe diarrhea can occur leading to dehydration and ultimately death, its deficiency is  prevalent in underdeveloped countries  where poverty  and lack of knowledge of  proper diet is  a number one cause of many nutritional deficiencies.

Nicotinic acid is metabolized by liver and exerted by urine. If taken in excess it can cause, skin rash, itching and scaling along with gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, indigestion and acidity, niacin can also cause liver failure in extremely high doses. in many pharmaceutical products niacin is available as part of B complex vitamins in form of tablets, syrups, injections  and infusions, vitamin supplements should be taken on doctorís advise and dose should be adjusted according to doctorís prescription in case of severe documented deficiency to avoid  side effects, other wise its need can be easily met by diet we take.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Nicotinic Acid  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Night Mare:  
Night Mare: Nightmares are horrible or frightening dreams, which awaken the person from sleep, nightmares, have very bad impact on overall physical and mental health of body. On awakening after seeing nightmare, person cannot sleep for hours or it affects the daytime activities badly.

Nightmares have many causes behind, taking heavy spicy fatty meal in dinner and  indigestion can cause nightmares, these meals increase metabolic rate and increase activity of brain during sleep timings which normally doesnít happen, during sleep all body functions including brain activities get slower like heart rate, pulse, breathing and generation of impulses from brain.

Some psychological stress or emotional incident in life can also lead to nightmares, like accidents, some mishap like death of close relative, dispute between the patient and other people, or threats given by enemies, any type of stress can lead to nightmare.

Sleep deprivation or uncomfortable, unsafe environment can cause nightmares. Surprisingly some drugs can make person see nightmares as their side effects, drugs that are used to treat Parkinsonism, which is neurological disorder, those used to control blood pressure, antidepressants and even some antibiotics, can cause nightmares.

Diagnosis totally depends upon history and examination of patient, some times EEG is done to detect sleep deprivation and some psychological disorders. Treatment is mainly supportive; there is no specific treatment for nightmares, proper comfortable sleep environment devoid of noise, counseling, and psychological therapy is needed, some time strong sleeping pills are given for sound sleep, which greatly affect the outcome in these patients.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Night Mare and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nitric Acid:  
Nitric Acid: Nitric acid is poisonous chemical used as reagent in various laboratories. It is also found in cleaners and fertilizers. It is toxic agent and being an acid can cause severe burns to exposed area. Its poisoning is common in laboratory personals and farmers. Poisoning results from ingestion, by local contact or inhalation of toxic vapors.

Symptoms:
There is irritation and severe pain in mouth, eyes redness and irritation is common with burns of skin, mouth and throat, burned throat results in edema and difficulty in breathing, gastrointestinal symptoms are vomiting of blood, severe abdominal pain and diarrhea, ultimately patients go in shock with low blood pressure and collapse. Inhaled vapors result in chocking, cough, cyanosis, difficulty in breathing, chest tightness and wheezing.

Diagnosis: Acid has characteristic smell, which comes from clothing, and nearby objects, presence of burns on skin and mouth and symptoms are enough to make the diagnosis, there is hardly any time to make diagnosis.  These signs are usually taken as general acid poisoning regardless of type of acid.

Treatment:  Immediate decontamination with stomach wash is necessary; plenty of intravenous fluid should be given with breathing support. Burns are treated locally with antibiotic cover in order to avoid superimposed infections.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Nitric Acid and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nocturnal Hypoxia:  
Noctural Hypoxia: Hypoxia or deprivation of oxygen during sleep is called nocturnal hypoxia. it is mainly caused by arterial hypoxia due to variety of predisposing factors. During sleep temporary desideration of hemoglobin occurs, normal oxygen levels in our blood are 85 mm hg; during hypoxemia this level falls down to 60 mm Hg. Provoking factors are various airway, lung and cardiovascular diseases. During sleep alveolar hyperventilation occurs with chest breathing.

Many factors contributes to its causation; chronic lung disease like COPD, hypertension, heart failure, various neuromuscular disorder like post polio syndrome,  myasthenia gravis  myotonic dystrophy and muscular dystrophy. These patients have respiratory difficulty in sleep despite normal respiratory function in daytime.  Symptoms of nocturnal hypoxia are morning drowsiness or headache, increased sleepiness in day timings, weight loss, cyanosis, restlessness, lethargy and poor mental function and concentration in day due to disturbed sleep. Polycythemia, and high blood pressure may also be present.

Diagnosis can be done by history, examination and pulse oxymetry during sleep. Treatment is oxygen supplementation and mechanical ventilation in severe cases as well as treatment of underlying cause. Most patients have good recovery and survival rate after effective treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Nocturnal Hypoxia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Nodular Purigo:  
Nodular Purigo: This condition comprises of   appearance of small nodules with scaling, scabbing and intense itching, (nodules are small-elevated pea sized skin lumps), the exact cause of this condition is not known but people suffering from this skin disease usually have chronic itch, and sometimes condition is associated with autoimmune disorders, liver and kidney diseases, allergic dermatitis and AIDS.

Symptoms: There are multiple or numerous scaly pigmented lesions on skin with intense itching, itching leads to scratching and scabbing and surrounding skin becomes red, lesions are brown, red or purplish in color, these nodules are most common on arms or legs but can be present in any body area, scratching sometimes lead to superimposed infection and development of pustule and resulting scarring.

Diagnosis: Skin biopsy shows increased vessels and verve, culture of the tissue taken from lesion reveals sometimes-bacterial growth. Family history of allergic dermatitis is usually present.

Treatment: This condition is very difficult to treat, anti allergic drugs are prescribed to relieve itching, topical steroids are used effectively, in severe resistant cases,  oral or inject able steroids have to be used. Antibiotics also greatly affect the course and outcome of disease.

In this page, we are going to discuss about nodular purigo and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Numbness:  
Numbness: In this page, we are going to discuss about Numbness  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Obesity:  
Obesity: Having excess body fat is called obesity. Obesity has now become a major health problem now a day. Obesity is not of cosmetic concern only it can cause serious health problems in body like high blood pressure and cholesterol, diabetes, arthritis, gallstones, heart attacks and cardiovascular accidents. Obesity occurs when calorie intake exceeds calorie expenditure, obesity is measured  in terms of body mass index. Body mass index is person's weight in kilograms divided by height in square meters  adults having body mass index greater then 30 are said to be obese, obesity runs in families  so both  genetic and environmental factors contribute to this problem. Certain risk factors are contribute to obesity which includes family history, sedentary life style, overeating, stress, diets rich in fats, carbohydrates rich staple diets, lack of exercise, certain hormonal changes in body, pregnancy, various medications like birth control pills, and a number of diseases are also responsible for this problem like, Hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Obesity is difficult to treat and even if treated there are great chances of relapse. Both diet and exercise  play role in this condition; diet high in fiber and low fat diet  are beneficial and contribute a lot in treatment, life style changes should be adopted, one  to two hours walk daily  should be done to maintain an ideal body weight. In extreme cases surgery options are there like gastric banding or gastric bypass. In this page, we are going to discuss about Obesity and types of Obesity, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
obstructive-sleep-apnoea:  
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: Obstructive sleep apnea is most common and frequent type of sleep disordered breathing, apnea means cessation of respiration ,usually it remains undiagnosed in patients who seep alone and no body else is there to see the symptoms during sleep. Most common symptom of sleep apnea is loud snoring with episodes of gasps; it is very important sign because this type of apnea is indicative of risk of cardiovascular accidents like heart attack and stroke in future.

Basically it is due to obstruction of upper airway either due to loss of muscle tone in respiratory passages or  factors  responsible for decreased muscle tone in airway, infections which cause soft tissue swelling in upper way can cause it like in infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein bar virus  which cause swelling of lymphoid tissue. It is also very common in tonsillitis particularly in children, swelling of tonsils because obstruction of airways, some structural abnormalities like in cleft palate and in Down syndrome, airway is short and can cause obstruction. Addictive drugs like alcohol, sedatives whish are muscle relaxants, and smoking also precipitate this condition.

Obesity is a major factor due to increased maxillofacial soft tissue and mass. Males are more prone to this type of apnea again due to increased mass in head and neck region, obstructive sleep apnea is a complication of craniofacial surgeries like pharyngeal flap surgery.

Treatment includes various modalities to maintain patent airway during sleep. Tonsillectomy can give relief in case of tonsillitis, reduction of body weight, avoiding alcohol, smoking and sedative drugs, eradication of infection to remove inflammation and swelling of airways, in severe cases continuous positive airway pressure ventilation is needed.

Certain position changes can relieve the condition like sleeping with upper body elevated at 30 degree to avoid gravitational collapse of airway or sleeping in lateral positions or by sides can bring much improvement.

Various oropharyngeal exercises are developed for healthy airway like sucking tongue upwards towards palate or inflating balloon by blowing forcefully and then deep breathing through nose etc. Over all this condition is treatable if diagnosed earlier otherwise it can cause serious health risks like heart attacks, stroke, hypertension, weight gain and obesity.

In this page, we are going to discuss about malaria Obstructive Sleep Apnoea and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Oedamatous Laryngitis:  
Laryngitis: It is infiltration of serum or collection of fluid within the mucous membrane of larynx, it is also called laryngeal edema, it is very distressing condition because it gives suffocation feeling to patient and causes air hunger, which is very agonizing.

Death, can occur due to complete obstruction of respiratory passages if not treated promptly and adequately. Some injury or trauma to larynx as in case of accidental trauma to throat, or impaction of some pointed and large food particle or foreign body are the major causes; it may also arise as complication of various diseases like  diphtheria or whooping cough, influenza, typhoid or in rabies.  It can also result from anaphylactic shock, a generalized allergic reaction in body.

Symptoms: Symptoms begin with increasing breathing difficulty, suffocation feeling, hoarseness of voice develops initially then voice becomes weaker, deep, whispering and ultimately completely lost, as edema progresses breathing become more laborious, and inspiration becomes difficult but expiration comparatively is easy, attacks of propulsive cough occur, patient becomes extremely anxious and pulse becomes faster and irregular with palpitation.

Diagnosis: History and examination by laryngoscope are done to directly examine the larynx, characteristic breathing Pattern with difficult inspiration and normal expiration is diagnostic, injuries to neck or throat and gun shot wounds themselves indicate toward the condition.

Treatment:  If edema and inflammation is mild then local measures like application of ice packs along with anti-inflammatory drugs are beneficial. Surgery is done to remove the impacted foreign body.

Prompt incubation is necessary in case of impending respiratory failure, tracheotomy is done to save life in case of complete cessation of respiration, in tracheotomy small hole is made in trachea in front of neck to restore the breathing.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Acute Laryngitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Oedema:  
Oedema: Accumulation of fluid in body tissues and spaces is called edema,. Edema is of two main types; pitting and non-pitting, pitting edema is one in which an indention is formed when tissues involving edema is pressed tightly by finger.

This is due to shifting of fluid due to pressure. Non pitting edema does not  produce indentation, tissue remains firm in this type; pitting edema is mostly found in skin and is  due to water retention in case of renal failure, heart failure, pregnancy or  local venous diseases. Non pitting edema is due to lymphatic blockage and collection of fluid in fatty or subcutaneous tissue. Edema can also be localized or systemic.

 Localized edema is developed in individual parts like limb edema in case of insect bite, varicose veins, and brain edema, fluid accumulated in different body cavities like pleural, pericardial effusion or ascites.

Edema can be generalized involving whole body like in elephantiasis, cardiac failure and protein deficiency. Edema is diagnosed by clinical examination and different tests, effusion can be detected by ultrasound, x rays and diagnostic tap or drainage in which needle is injected in specific areas of swelling and fluid is drained and examined microscopically.

Brain edema can be diagnosed by CT and MRI scans and x ray skull. Treatment of edema varies with cause. Low salt and high protein diet is indicated along with water restriction, drugs which excrete excess fluid from kidneys are used called diuretics. Leg edema cam be reduced by elevating legs and by elastic stockings. Edema is symptom not a disease so its cause must be investigated and treated.

In this page, we are going to discuss about oedema and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Opiates And Opoids:  
Opiates And Opoids: Opiates and opioids are common addictive and psychoactive drugs used for CNS depression and relaxation and pain relief .These are either synthetic or naturally cultivated like heroin, morphine and codeine. 

These drugs cause increase sleepiness, muscle relaxation, insensitivity and euphoria or sense of well being. These are injected intravenously, or used as dermal patches, smoked or sniffed in dried forms. These are most commonly used by street drug abusers.

Symptoms: With acute over dosage first sign is unconsciousness with respiratory depression, and constriction of pupil is usually present but not always. Red eyes, drowsiness, seizures or convulsions respiratory depression, orthostatic hypotension are present at low doses. Cardiac arrhythmias and acute mental changes like psychosis, depression and anxiety are also present. Pink colored sputum, decreased respiratory rate and difficulty in breathing occur. Sometimes hypertension is present.

Diagnosis:  Diagnosis is made by measuring drug levels in blood and urine.

Treatment: Patient should be shifted to hospital; antidote available which is given by doctor, cardio respiratory support with artificial respiration and fluid therapy is given to patient. Later patient should be shifted to psychiatric hospital for both physical and psychological rehabilitation..

In this page, we are going to discuss about Opiates And Opoids and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Oral Hairy Leucoplakia:  
Oral Hairy Leucoplakia: This type of leukoplakia is seen in immune compromised patients, most importantly  are AIDS patients, other patients who can develop this are transplant patient, patients on chemotherapy and in patients on steroid therapy, this is most often the first sign of HIV  infection in AIDS  patients.

These lesions are caused by Epstein Barr virus infection either in form of primary infection or latent opportunistic infection.

Symptoms: They appear as white patches on tongue and mouth and some time more deep in oro pharynx, these are not pain full and surface is irregular  with  tiny overgrowths  resembling hairs thatís why called hairy leukoplakia.

Diagnosis: History and examination are very important in normal individuals this alerts the more workup for HIV infection, in case of AIDS, CD4 cells are raised on doing immunological tests .superimposed infection with fungus Candida can be diagnosed with culture of scrapings from the lesion.

Treatment: These patches are often asymptomatic but patients are suspicious about their existence.  Topical antifungal drops can be helpful. Patients should be advised to keep watch on other manifestations, which probably occur in AIDS and should be screened for HIV.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Oral Hairy Leucoplakia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Orehitis:  
Orehitis: Inflammation of testes is called orchitis. Testes are two ball shaped external reproductive organs in males, which produce sperms. Sperms are male reproductive cells, which fertilize eggs in female genital tract to form embryo or give birth to newborn baby.

Testes get inflamed by infections, trauma, or injury, autoimmune disorders and by tumors or cancers. Infections can be of viral or bacterial variety, mostly orchitis is associated with epididymitis, which is inflammation of epididymis, epididymis is coiled tube attached to testes, which stores and transport sperms during sexual activity. Among viral infection, most common cause is child hood infection called mumps.

Mumps is viral infection, which mostly affects children and involves parotid gland and testes in young boys. Bacterial infections either are transmitted by infections of nearby structures or as part pf sexually transmitted diseases.

Bacterial orchitis can progress to testicular abscess if not treated properly. Testes may get inflamed after accidental damage to them or their blood vessels during surgery of pelvic organs.

If blood supply of testes is interrupted due to any cause it can lead to ischemic inflammation due to oxygen deficiency and complicated to cause shrinkage of testes and permanent infertility. Symptoms are pain in testes with tenderness, swelling and warmth, blood can come out with semen and with urine, and frank pussy foul smelling discharge from urethra is a sign of bacterial infection.

Diagnosis is done by history, examination, and ultrasound. Some times semen is collected and sent for culture and microscopic examination.

Various tests are available to detect blood vessel obstruction and to detect tumors. Treatment is done by anti inflammatory drugs and painkillers. Viral infections are self limiting and can be treated by supportive care, viral orchitis is also prevented by vaccination of children for mumps; sexually transmitted diseases are major cause of orchitis and require safe sex techniques like use of condoms and maintaining hygiene before and after sexual intercourse.

Surgery is done to remove obstruction in blood vessels and to remove tumors, which could be the cause of orchitis. Orchitis should be actively treated because any delay in treatment results in testicular atrophy and infertility.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Orehitis  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Osteoarthritis:  
Osteoarthritis: Osteopathic is commonest joint disorder. In this disorder jointís cartilage is destroyed and there is friction between two bone surfaces which results in  joint swelling,  pain and stiffness which is worse in morning, inability to carry weight and disability in severe cases. Mostly weight bearing joints are affected, like hip and knee joints. Cause is unknown but mainly it is caused by aging process. Obesity increases its chances, there is family history of disease in affected people. It is particularly common in women after menopause. Treatment involves rest, exercises, calcium and vitamin supplements, medication for pain relief, braces and splints, and surgery in extreme cases.In this page, we are going to discuss about Osteoarthritis and types of Osteoarthritis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Osteoporosis:  
Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis is most common bone disease. it typically affects elderly females over 50 yrs of age especially after menopause and men over 60 years, due to deficiency of calcium ,phosphorus and vitamin D. bones become fragile weak  and prone to fractures even without injury. In women estrogen which is a hormone plays an important role in it pathogenesis as well as testosterone in males.

Through out life bones become strong and its framework remains dense due to absorption of calcium and magnesium, physical activity and hormonal balance under the influence of Vitamin D but as age progresses calcium and phosphorus, resorption occurs from bones due to variety of factors like hormonal changes, less physical activity and less calcium and phosphorus stores in bones. Calcium and phosphorus stores are very important in prevention of osteoporosis in young age that is why these minerals should be taken in handsome amount in adult life to make enough stores in bones to prevent osteoporosis later in life.

In osteoporosis bone normal density decreases resulting in bone pain especially low back pain and bone tenderness, fractures of bones especially hip fractures, loss of height and structural abnormalities like kyphosis. Causative factors are sedentary life styles, dietary lack of calcium and vitamin D, decreased sunlight exposure, smoking, low body weight, alcohol, absence of menstruation and menopause in females; and steroid medications.  Osteoporosis can easily be diagnosed by clinical history, bone density test and bone x rays. Treatment is calcium and vitamin D supplements, hormone replacement therapy, exercises and in case of fractures, orthopedic supports and surgeries are necessary.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Osteoporosis and types of Osteoporosis, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Otitis External:  
Otitis External:
Otitits external is inflammation of external ear, which consist of pinna, auricle and external auditory canal. It is very common in swimmers and people who are engaged in water sports. Moisture and trauma to external auditory canal predisposes to infection. otitis external is of two main types, acute and chronic. Acute otitis external is of short duration and chronic otitis external is of longer duration and often relapsing.

Trauma to ear by hard earwax or by inserting foreign bodies ear picks and fingernails inside the ear are precipitating factors, swimming in contaminated water pools is major factor in its pathogenesis. It can be secondary to various systemic skin conditions like eczema dermatitis or psoriasis, in high temperatures and high humidity bacterial growth is favorable and in these situations, this infection is common.

Otitis external can be caused by bacterial infections or fungal infections but most cases are of bacterial origin. Symptoms are painful swelling of ears, increased redness or erythema over the external surface of ear, and ear discharge either watery or pussy.

Patient has enlarged lymph nodes in mandibular area and neck. General symptoms like fever and malaise are present. To prevent the disorder patient should avoid moisture to develop inside the ear, abstinence from swimming and water sports, drying of ears after taking bath, avoid trauma by not putting anything inside the ears, like cotton swabs or picks or any foreign body.

Treatment includes cleaning the ear by doctor  and antibiotics either orally or iv depending on the severity of symptoms,  culture of ear discharge should be sent to diagnose the causative organism, keeping ear dry by using hair dryer  and using ear plugs during bath are necessary to control the infection.

In this page, we are going to discuss about otitis external and types of otitis external, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Oxalic Acid:  
Oxalic Acid: Oxalic acid is a poisonous substance found in bleaches and cleaning agents. It is also found in foods like green leafy vegetables, spinach has highest quantity of oxalic acid, and it is colorless substance so its poisoning is common through dermal contact and ingestion, it is also used as reagent in chemical laboratories and people working in such labs are prone to accidental exposure.

Symptoms: On local contact, it causes skin burns and blisters. Skin shows increased degree of inflammation and later scabbing. Accidental ingestion causes pain and burning in mouth, vomiting, abdominal pain, shaky movements of body or convulsions, low blood pressure, shock and finally patient collapsed resulting in death, if patients survive the acute attack, marked unconsciousness and coma results.

However, ingestion of large doses is rare because it is acid and rarely easily taken by mouth, oxalic acid is also found in foods in form of oxalate. Long-term use pf these oxalate results in kidney stones, urinary tract infections and kidney failure. Oxalate salts also accumulate in joints resulting in joint pain and inflammation.

Diagnosis: There is no specific test for diagnosis. Diagnostic clues are obtained from history, examination of clothes and mouth for a presence of acid spillage and characteristic odor helps in diagnosis.

Treatment: Immediate washing of mouth and exposed skin is required. Plain water and milk can significantly neutralize the poison in conscious person. Patient should be shifted to hospital after first aid where gastric lavage is done to eliminate the poison. Cardio respiratory support with incubation and artificial ventilation is to be given, in case of marked burns patient should be shifted to intensive care unit, fluid and electrolyte replacement play very important role, other treatment is symptomatic like control of convulsions and pain.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Oxalic Acid and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pain In The Elbow:  
Pain In The Elbow: Injury to any structure around elbow joint can cause elbow pain whether it is physical injury or chemical injury, elbow is flexible joint present at junction of arm and forearm it is surrounded by fibrous sheath called bursa, tendons which are string like ends of muscles, and ligaments which give support. Any person can have damage to these structures but sportsmen and labors are especially prone to injuries around elbow joint.

Common conditions which cause pain are bone fractures and joint dislocations, bursitis, tendonitis, compression of nerves and inflammation of any structures as well as  muscle sprains and strains  can cause pain and discomfort, only calcium and vitamin D deficiency can be the reason of  pain without any structural defects. Pain can be referred from other sites.

Symptoms are pain associated with immobility of joint or difficulty in lifting or turning arms or handling objects, in case of fractures or dislocation there is obvious abnormality in normal anatomy or structure of joint. Best diagnostic approach is x ray of joint with nerve conduction tests or blood tests to detect any inflammatory process.

Elbow pain is managed by pain killers, adequate rest, often application of splints and elastic bandages are used to give support or relieve swelling. Severe cases require surgery to remove compression from nerves. Fractures and dislocations need special orthopedic treatment.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pain In The Elbow and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pain In The Hand And Wrist:  
Pain In The Hand And Wrist: Hand and wrist are probably the most common structures which are used continuously throughout the day, there fore they are most commonly affected by pain and other disorders.

Most common disorders causing pain in hand and wrist are carpel tunnel syndrome, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes; injury and inflammation of bursa, tendons, muscles and joints can also cause it, commonly people who are engaged in occupations which need excessive work by hand and wrist are vulnerable to pain at this site like writers, people doing typing or computer work and tailors.

Pain is often associated with numbness, swelling and decreased mobility or range of movements but can occur alone also.

Special care should be taken in diabetics because pain  associated symptoms are alarming of micro vascular  circulation impairment which can cause serious problems, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are also deadly and cause disfiguring and disability by permanent stiffening of fingers.

Diagnostic methods are same as done in other joint and muscle disease like x rays, blood tests to detect inflammatory cells and antibody titers. This pain can be managed by pain killers, hot and cold fomentation, adequate rest to hands; splints, elastic bandages and braces can also relieve discomfort.

In this page, we are going to discuss about pain in the hand and wrist and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Palpitation:  
Palpitation: Subjective feeling of increased heart rate is called palpitation, palpitation may feel for few seconds or even longer, it is common in case of any fear, stress, or panic state but if it is associated with shortness of breath sweating and vertigo it can be due to underlying diseases and should be investigated.

Causes of palpitation are heart diseases like   angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, and valvular heart disease, lung diseases can also cause palpitation like pneumonia, asthma, emphysema.

Fluid or blood loss, like in dehydration, severe bleeding, anemia, hormonal disorders like hyperthyroidism, some foods  and drugs also develop palpitation in normal individuals like alcohol, caffeine in tea and coffee.

Psychological disorders are major cause of palpitation like panic disorders and anxiety neurosis; overexertion and sudden changes of motion are risk factors for palpitation.

Diagnosis of palpitation is only done through history because it is  symptom not a disorder itself  usually ECG electrodes are left with patient for 24 hours because palpitation occur in episodes so any change in heart rhythm can not be missed, this method of continuous ECG  recording is called Holter monitoring and it is done to detect arrhythmias or any other heart abnormality, underlying disease causing palpitation can be investigated by different tests. Palpitation requires underlying disorder to be corrected.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Palpitation  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Paralysis Agitans:  
Paralysis Agitans: Paralysis agitans is the set of motor complaints in patients with Parkinsonism; Parkinsonism is brain disease due to age related degeneration of neurons and decreased release of neurotransmitter called dopamine.

From brain required for muscle movement and coordination, patients with paralysis agitans have  resting tremors which are characteristically of pill rolling type, tremors or shaky movements of body are relieved by doing some work,  muscle rigidly and spasticity, mask like face, loss of  balance and uncoordinated movements.

Leading to difficulty on walking, patient get repeated falls  due to loss of motor co ordination, one more feature of paralysis agitans is slow movements, patient feel difficulty in initiating movement,  usually disease starts at an  old age but can occur in adult life also.

Causes of development are diverse including genetics, toxins, accumulation of iron, copper and mercury in body, brain diseases and injuries, side effects of some drugs like antidepressants and antipsychotic, age related neurodegenerative processes all contribute to disorder.

Diagnosis is based on clinical history and physical symptoms there are no specific tools for diagnosis. Treatment is done by giving oral drugs, which increase the dopamine release from brain. Physiotherapy is also important as in any other brain paralytic condition.

In this page, we are going to discuss about paralysis agitans and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Paraplegia:  
Paraplegia: It is defined as paralysis of both lower limbs and legs; it is due to injury to spinal cord or it may be congenital in babies with the defective development of spinal cord called spina bifida.

Spinal cord injury may occur due to infections, trauma, fractured vertebra or bones, or tumors, spina bifida is open defect in spinal cord in newborn babies often with herniation of its content outside the body, and it is due to decreased intake of folic acid during pregnancy by mothers.

Symptoms of paraplegia are weakness and inability of individual to move both limbs, heaviness in legs, flaccid or rigid muscles of lower limbs, abnormal sensation, and loss of sensation or numbness is present.

It is associated with loss of bladder and bowel control and incontinence, it is very distressing condition for both the patient and the family members, patients develop depression because of long-term disability, and babies born with spina bifida have low IQs and mental retardation.

History and examination, and CT make diagnosis and MRI scans of spinal cord. Patients need physiotherapy, rehabilitation and nursing care including prevention of varicose veins and ulcers and pressure sores, catheters are usually used for incontinence of urine.

These patients used to remain on wheel chairs for whole life so rehabilitation is very necessary step in providing job and adjusting in society. Spina bifida in children requires surgery and most of the cases resolve after surgical correction.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Paraplegia  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Parkinsonís Disease:  
Parkinson's Disease: It is a syndrome comprising of group of  motor, psychiatric and other problems due to destruction of parts of brain called basal ganglia and resulting cell death, cells degenerate resulting in loss of muscle movement, loss of memory and neuropsychiatric functions.

It is associated with impaired releases of  dopamine from brain cells  and presence of abnormal cells called Lewy bodies on histopathology, parkinsonism is basically age related syndrome but can also induced earlier by many factor like use of  anti psychotic and antidepressants, chronic brain trauma, example is game of boxing in which repeated head injuries can cause cell degeneration and  parkinsonism.

Some vascular disorders of brain like cerebral infarction or stroke can also be a cause. Patients have resting tremors, rigidity of muscles, mask like face with no expressions, loss of blinking of eyes and secondary dryness, blurred vision and decreased visual activity, patients have abnormal gait and difficulty in walking, lack of sleep, loss of memory, anxiety depression, hallucinations and alteration in sexual behavior.

Diagnosis of parkinsonism is based on clinical manifestations, sometime radioisotopes are injected which can  diagnose the  impaired release of dopamine  from brain cells, presence of Lewy bodies on biopsy are diagnostic but  biopsy  is normally  not done. Treatment of Parkinsonism is done by medications, which increase the release of dopamine along with physical and psychological rehabilitation.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Parkinson's Disease  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus:  
Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Ductus arteriosus is a channel present in babyís heart during intrauterine life, which bypasses the blood flow from lungs; because babies present in motherís uterus derive blood supply from mother so there is no need of blood oxygenation.

It is closed after birth within few weeks in response to increased oxygen concentration in babyís lungs when baby cry after birth, but in some babies this channel remains open after birth and cause problems. Opened channel or vessel is called Patent ductus arteriosus.

Risk factors associated with this disorder are premature babies and prolonged oxygen deficiency caused by any other cause. Patent or open-end ductus cause irregular flow of blood from left side of heart back to lung; this increases the pressure in lungs and cause lung edema and congestive heart failure in later stages.

Symptoms are mild in early stages like poor feeding, failure to grow normally, later shortness of breath, palpitation, blue lower limbs and poor growth occur, if defect is small there are no symptoms or only mild symptoms with heart murmurs (murmurs are abnormal muffling heart sounds).

Diagnosis is done by history, physical examination, Doppler ultrasound of heart, Echocardiography and x ray chest, heart size is increased on chest X ray. ECG is not helpful. Treatment is done by drugs and surgical methods. Surgery is done by pediatric surgeon to close the opened channel. (Pediatricians are doctors specialized in childhood diseases and problems).

In this page, we are going to discuss about Patent Ductus Arteriosus  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pellagra:  
Pellagra: Pellagra is a disease  caused due to deficiency of vitamin B3  or tryptophan  in  body. Vitamin B3 is also called niacin or nicotine acid and includes in category of vitamin B complex, which are water-soluble vitamins essential for body. Tryptophan is an amino acid and contributes in causation of pellagra. Its deficiency is either duo to lack in diet, in alcoholics and in patients with malabsorption syndromes in which patient is unable to utilize the vitamin despite of its presence in diet. Pellagra also occurs in anorexia nervous patients. Anorexia nervous is a nutritional disorder in which patient have decreased intake of food and loss of appetite due to psychological factors, but its occurrence is rare in these patients but if occurs cutaneous symptoms predominate. Symptoms of pellagra comprises of four famous dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death. Dermatitis is inflammation of skin and dementia means loss of memory. Symptoms of dermatitis usually are scaly sores and inflamed mucous membranes, among neurological symptoms, delusions, mental confusion and loss of memory are common. Pellagra is preventable in most cases. It can be prevented by taking diets rich in vitamin B complex and proteins, reduction of alcohol intake and vitamin supplement. If not treated it can be lethal disease when complications arise. Diagnosis is usually done by clinical history and examinations and by urine tests because niacin metabolites mostly are excreted through urine. In this page, we are going to discuss about pellagra and types of pellagra, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pericardial Effusion:  
Pericardial Effusion: Collection of fluid in pericardial cavity is called pericardial effusion, it may be  small to be asymptomatic or  be large enough to compress the heart causing life threatening condition called cardiac temponade, pericardial cavity is space surrounding heart and consists of two layers which secretes small amounts of fluid which lubricates external surface of hert and protects it from injury, inflammation or migration of normal or abnormal cells in pericardial layers produce excessive amounts of fluid or fluid can enter the space through any trauma or leak. Effusion may be transude or clear fluid as occurs in congestive failure or kidney disease, it may be exudate or pus as collected in tuberculosis or  hemorrhaging or bloody as in trauma or cancer.

Symptoms are pain and heaviness in chest, in large effusion which compress heart   patients develop low blood pressure and shortness of breath, palpitation and sever chest pain, it can cause sudden death if not treated immediately, x-ray chest, ECG and Echocardiography can give the diagnostic clues. In suspicious temponade CT and MRI Scans of heart should be done without wasting time.

 Mild effusion due to viral infection can resolve by its own or by antibiotic treatment in case of bacterial infection, those due to autoimmune disorders; take time for curing, drainage is necessary to remove fluid, this is both of diagnostic and curative value. Surgery is planned in emergency for cardiac temponade.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pericardial Effusion  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pericarditis:  
Pericarditis: Inflammation of pericardium is called pericarditis, pericardium is  outer covering or membranes which protects heart from outside, it is made up of fibrous tissue, it consist of two layers with a cavity inside, cavity is filled with fluid called pericardial fluid which is minimal in amount and  clear  and gives cushioning effect and prevent  injury to  heart.

Most of the cases of pericarditis are associated with infections, viral are most common, but bacterial and fungi can also cause pericarditis, tuberculosis is the major cause of pericarditis, fungal pericarditis is common in patients with decreased immunity like AIDS.

Other causes are trauma to heart like puncture wounds, myocardial infarction, autoimmune disorders, radiations, drugs, kidney failure resulting in uremia or increased uric acid level in blood.

Pericarditis can result in pericardial effusion or collection of fluid in the pericardial cavity this is very dangerous state, can cause constrictive perticarditis or cardiac temponade, temponade is compression of heart from outside and can cause sudden cardiac death.

Symptoms are chest pain left sided or substernal radiating to back, and increases on lying down and on inspiration or breathing in, it is often associated with cough, shortness of breath, fever and lethargy.

Diagnosis is done by chest x ray and ECG. It is treated by anti inflammatory drugs some time steroids, antibiotics are used in bacterial infection and antifungal drugs in fungal pericarditis. In case of constrictive pericarditis or temponade urgent surgery is done to save patient.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pericarditis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Peripheral Arterial Disease:  
Peripheral Arterial Disease: It is collective term used for disorders of peripheral arteries outside heart and brain, it mostly commonly involve the arteries of legs, and usually refers to lower limb arteries but can affect any  peripheral  artery.Causes are atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, Raynaudís disease, tumors, thrombo embolism and inflammations. Risk factors are old age, smoking, high cholesterol levels, and obesity.
Symptoms are leg  claudication, ulcers or sores on skin of legs, and in severe cases gangrene develops, claudication is pain, numbness, abnormal sensation and spasm on walking resulting in difficulty moving and later disability, skin of affected part become pale, red or blue and becomes cool, there is dryness, and skin appendages like hairs and nails are affected with decreased hair growth and nail deformities, later as disease worsens, pain at rest also occurs, with  development of dead tissue called gangrene, gangrene is dead infected tissue often black in color and contains foul smelling pus.

Diagnosis is done by clinical examination, Doppler ultrasound of legs; angiography and MRI scan of legs vessels. Treatment depends upon extent of disease, mild cases are treated by drugs such as thrombolytic drug, vasodilators, and antihypertensive and anti diabetic drugs, lower limb exercises and elastic stockings with good diet contain vitamins and minerals are very helpful, angioplasty is done to relieve thrombi, clots or tumors, gangrene requires amputation of toe, foot or whole limb in unfortunate cases. In this page, we are going to discuss about Peripheral Arterial Disease and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Peritoneal Dialysis:  
Peritoneal Dialysis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Peritoneal Dialysis  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pernicious Anemia:  
Pernicious Anemia: It is cause by Vitamin B12 deficiency, secondary to loss of gastric parietal cells due to lack of protein called Intrinsic factor, which is responsible for absorption of Vitamin B12. Antibodies destroy gastric cells, chronic gastritis also lead to this condition in usually autoimmune process. It is relatively dangerous condition because it can cause even gastric cancer if not treated properly. It needs to be differentiated from other causes of Vitamin B 12 deficiencies like malabsorption, dietary lack, etc which are called Megaloblastic anemiaís, due to presence of Megaloblasts in blood. In this page, we are going to discuss about Pernicious Anemia and types of Pernicious Anemia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Perutonitis:  
Perutonitis: Peritoneum is the membrane, which covers the inner surface of abdominal cavity, when it is inflamed or infected due to any cause; condition is called peritonitis. Peritoneum can be infected or inflamed due to presence of fluid, blood or pus.

Causes:  It   may be primary or secondary. Primary peritonitis occurs due to direct injury or spread of infection from blood, like it may occur secondary to lacerated or puncture wound of abdomen after accidental trauma or gun shot wound  or develops as a part of sepsis (sepsis is state of having infection in blood).

It may occur after abdominal cauterization or insertion of drains if proper sterilization techniques are not used. Secondary peritonitis occurs due to gastrointestinal diseases like perforated ulcers or gut perforation, ruptured appendix or colon, intestinal obstruction or due to liver or kidney failure.

Symptoms: Patient presents with severe pain in abdomen, abdomen is highly pain full to touch, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, or may be in state of shock with low blood pressure, rapid pulse, sweating  and shortness of breath.

Diagnosis: It is made on clinical grounds and on ultrasound examination.

Treatment: It is a medical emergency and surgery should be done immediately to save life and to cure the actual cause. Antibiotics are given for long period to control the infection .patients are not given anything by mouth until complete recovery and are on IV therapy in hospitalized state.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Perutonitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Phosphorus Poisoning:  
Phosphorus Poisoning: Phosphorus compounds are found in nature in two forms organic and inorganic, inorganic phosphorous are of two types; red phosphorous and white or yellow phosphorous.

Red phosphorous is not that dangerous but white or yellow phosphorous can cause significant poisoning in humans, phosphorus is found in fertilizers, pesticides insecticides and especially rodenticides.

Rodenticides are poisons which are used to kill rats in domestic settings, accidental poisoning is common where people mistakenly ingest poison, and this is also used to attempt suicides.

Symptoms: Patient develops nausea vomiting abdominal pain, increased heart and respiratory rate, low blood pressure, then stage of remission comes and patient becomes asymptomatic and may be discharged at this stage, patient might recover or condition progresses to stage of liver failure with clotting defects, convulsions  and coma, renal damage can occur, cardio respiratory compromise is  also seen  representing as increased heart rate, low blood pressure, and cardiogenic shock, patientís brain  may  also be affected resulting in confusion, hallucination, psychosis and coma.

Diagnosis: There are no specific diagnostic tools for the condition, some patients have garlic odor in their breath, and urine. History and examination counts a lot, patients have dilated pupil on examination.

Treatment: Immediate stomach wash has to be done with cardio respiratory support with oxygen and IV fluid replacement. Cardiac, Renal and hepatic functions should be closely monitored and their failures should be promptly treated. Prevention is better then cures; household items like match sticks, rat poisons and other insecticides should be keeping out of reach of children. They be should be labeled with name and kept in separate store rooms on high places.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Phosphorus Poisoning and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Physical Findings:  
Physical Findings: In this page, we are going to discuss about Physical Findings  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pituitary Gland Tumors:  
Pituitary Gland Tumors:  Pituitary gland is small pea sized gland present at base of brain, it controls the function of other endocrine glands in body like thyroid gland, adrenal gland and reproductive gland, tumors of pituitary gland are mostly benign means they are not very much dangerous and do not spread to other organs, but some are malignant like Adeno carcinoma. This readily spread to other organs by blood stream and or lymph vessels. Either pituitary gland tumors cause increased release of hormone from it resulting in its hyperactive function or they cause compression of gland and secrete less amount of hormone resulting in its hypo function.

Both affect release of hormones from peripheral glands. Usually symptoms are headache, vertigo, vomiting, vision problems like blurred vision and loss of peripheral vision. Effects on other glands result in hyperthyroidism, Cushing syndrome, acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia.

Symptoms of these syndromes are edema or swelling of face, weight gain, glucose intolerance, moon like face,  increased height, long legs and arms, increased nipple discharge, irregular menstruation and loss of sex desire in women, erectile dysfunction and loss of sex desire in men, infertility in both sexes, intolerance to heat, increased heart rate and  diarrhea. 

Best methods to detect pituitary gland tumors are MRI scan of brain and measurements of hormonal levels. Treatment depends on size and location of tumor and combination of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery is required.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pituitary Gland Tumors and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pity Rosporum:  
Pity Rosporum: These are the species of fungi or yeasts, which are normally present on human skin, these fungi, are also called malassezia. Fungus is fat dependent and use fatty acids as their nutrition thatís why these are present on those areas of human skin where fats are abundant like face, chest, upper arms, shoulders and back.

There are various varieties of fungi which cause diseases in humans, these are pityrosporum ovale, pityrosporum furfur, pityrosporum globosa and many others, these fungi overgrow in immune compromised hosts like diabetics, cancer patients, patients receiving chemotherapy, transplant patients and AIDS patients.

Infections with these fungi are also common in hot humid climate and presence of excessive sweating due to tight clothing, continuous moisture can also predispose to overgrowth, obesity, pregnancy, stress, use of greasy sun blocks, creams and cosmetics and antibiotic misuse can lead to these disorders. Diseases caused by these fungi include seborrheic dermatitis, folliculate, dandruff and ptyriasis vesicular.

Symptoms: Folliculitis presents as itchy   red papules on face, scalp, back and waist, it is also presents with chronic acne resistant to antibiotic treatment. seborrhea dermatitis is inflammation of skin presents as dry itchy skin with scaling, dandruff is present on head with weak hairs and hair fall, ptyriasis vesicular presents as hypopigneted pale or white  areas on skin with itching especially on chest  neck and arms.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on history and examination, typical skin lesions with specific locations are present, allergy test is available for yeast. Florescent light techniques can be used to identify the fungus on examination; skin biopsy is sometimes useful in chronic severe cases.

Treatment: Systemic and local anti fungal drugs do Treatment. Anti dandruff shampoos are available in markets give symptomatic relief, zinc and selenium supplements help in treatment. Withholding antibiotics in chronic users stop the disease process. However, in immune compromised patients these infections are difficult to treat and require heavy dose of systemic anti fungal drugs.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pity Rosporum and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pityriasis:  
Pityriasis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Pityriasis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pneumonia:  
Pneumonia: Pneumonia is infection of lung and caused by a variety of organisms like bacteria, viruses, and fungi of which bacterial pneumonia is  most dangerous type. There are several types of pneumonia, but there are two basic types, one is community acquired and the other one is hospital acquired. As the name implies, hospital acquired pneumonia occurs in patients who acquire infection while hospitalized due to low immunity. Symptoms include fever, chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, and sputum which can be yellow or greenish  or even blood stained depending on type of organism causing pneumonia. treatment include iv antibiotics, proper fluid  replacement and  respiratory support. In this page, we are going to discuss about Pneumonia and types of Pneumonia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India
Poison:  
Poison: Poisons are harmful substances which affect the cells at cellular level by chemical reactions and disrupt their normal function. Poisons are of many types, toxins and venoms can also be included in poisons list. Toxins are substances produced by bacteria or viruses.

Venoms are poisons which harm the body cells by animal or insect bite or sting. Poisons can have both acute and chronic effects. Acute poisoning produce effects in minutes or hours and if not controlled can result in death or permanent problem in organ function.

Chronic poisoning results in slow damage to cells and produce long-term effects on normal physiology and function of body tissue. Many substances become poisons due to long-term abuse like some drugs for example paracetamol, iron, alcohol etc.

Treatment:
In case of poisoning immediately shift the patient to hospital preferably in an ambulance with all the equipments of basic life support. Poisoning immediately requires detoxification or removal of poisons from body, it can be achieved by stomach wash or Gastric lavage by mechanical sucking of poison from stomach, use of laxatives which increase bowl activity and remove poison from gastrointestinal tract before their absorption and naso gastric aspiration by a tube.

There are antidotes available which neutralizes the effects of poisons. Venom poisoning can be treated by applying pressure bandage at the site of bite or sting so that further spread of venom or toxin can be prevented from local site. As far as prevention is concerned all pain killers and medicines should be placed in secure place from the reach of children. Acids, insecticides and common house hold bleach should be placed in separate store to avoid any accidental poisoning.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Poison and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Poisoning Problems:  
Poisoning Problems: Poison is defined as any substance, which causes harm and injury to body by interacting chemically or physically with body cells and tissues. Poisons are mostly chemicals, acids or alkalis, some medicines in excess amount can cause poisoning, certain foods when not handled or stored  properly or contaminated with  microorganisms can cause poisoning, certain households products contains chemicals which  are poisonous for humans like  insect and rat killers, paint thinners etc. Water when contaminated with industrial or sewage waste can become poisonous.

Snakes, insects and Scorpions have dangerous poisons in their stings called venoms, which act as lethal poisons.  Poisoning can be acute or chronic. Acute poisoning may be due to taking large doses of drugs or poisons for suicidal substances.

Chronic poisoning can be due to long-term exposure to industrial toxins or contaminated water. Mostly emotionally labile, isolated and depressed people are poisoned. Some people begin to take recreational drugs like alcohol, heroine, morphine for addiction and dependent on them and become victims of chronic poisoning. Poisons have been used for committing murders or kidnapping in history.

Poisoning whether acute or chronic, intentional or unintentional can cause physical disability and psychological instability in survivors and their families. Patients should get psychiatric therapy or rehabilitation along with medical treatment.

There is need of awareness regarding prevention and first aid measures in case of poisoning. Safety measures should be taken regarding storage and use of household dangerous products, children should be kept in strict watch. Medication should be sold on doctorís prescription only.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Poisoning Problems and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polio:  
Polio: Polio or Poliomyelitis is caused by enterovirus called Polio virus this virus spread through direct contact of infected mucus, sputum and through contamination of food and water with human feces and urine. This virus multiplies in gut and spread to nervous system and can permanently damage the nervous system resulting in paralysis of lower limbs. Polio is now completely eradicated in developed countries but is even now a common cause of paralysis and disability in children of developing countries. Disease usually infects children and cause inflammation and infection of spinal cord and nerves, damage of these nerves result in paralysis, there are two types of polio. 1. non paralytic and 2. Paralytic form, non-paralytic form is more common then paralytic form. In non paralytic form usually patient develop mild symptoms like flu, fever, sore throat, malaise, loss of appetite and vomiting; symptoms usually last for one to two weeks, In paralytic form infection is more severe resulting in confusion, respiratory difficulty due to respiratory failure, difficulty in swallowing, muscle pain and spasm and paralysis of muscles. Prevention is best option for polio because up till now there is no cure for polio. Fortunately a very effective vaccine available for prevention and is a part of global immunization programme for children.

Adult Polio: Polio mainly occurs in children but it can occur in adults also. In adults symptoms usually fever, malaise, flu, weight loss, loss of appetite, respiratory difficulty due to spasm of respiratory muscles, difficulty in swallowing due to spasm of esophageal muscles and person can not do normal activities due to muscle weakness. 25 % of cases results in permanent damage and disability, rehabilitation by physiotherapy and orthopedic supports like leg braces play an important role in treatment in these cases.

Dermatomyositis: It is one of the group of diseases, called inflammatory myopathies It is chronic inflammatory disease of autoimmune origin in which muscles and skin are involved usually people have affected muscles which are close to trunk of the body like shoulder, chest and neck muscles resulting in weakness and pain in these muscles. Patient usually feels difficulty in swallowing and difficulty in breathing, patient is unable to raise his or her arms above the shoulders, feel problem in lifting objects, and climbing stairs. Skin rash usually accompanies or precedes the muscle weakness, there are reddish raised scaly rashes on face and other sun-exposed areas of skin like hands especially knuckles. This disease can occur at any age. Women are more commonly affected then males. This is sometimes associated with certain cancers like breast, ovarian and lung cancers. Most cases of dermatologists respond to medical therapy. In this page, we are going to discuss about Polio and types of polio, dermatomyositis, adults  polio, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polio in Urdu and Hindi:  
Polio or Poliomyelitis: Poliomyelitis is viral disease caused by polio virus. It is communicable disease which is transmitted  person to person through nasal and oral droplets, and through infected objects. It is common in underdeveloped countries and a major cause of disability in children of these regions. Sometimes it remains sub clinical. There are two major forms, paralytic and non paralytic forms. There are initial symptoms of fever, vomiting, body ache and sore throat, then asymmetrical muscle weakness and pain develop leading to paralysis. Thanks to global immunization program me its incidence has been decreased largely due to large amount of  people vaccinated worldwide. In this page, we are going to discuss about poliomyelitis and types of polio, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polyarticular:  
Polyarticular: It is a type of arthritis which involves many joints on both sides of body simultaneously, it is found in both adults and children, there are many identifiable causes like autoimmune disorders, infections, and environmental triggers like cold, bacterial infections and side effects of drugs, any joint can be affected ranging from large to small joints and joints of face like jaw and mandible. symptoms are pain and stiffness, physical deformity and enlargement of soft tissues around the joints like knuckle sand toes, difficulty on walking or chewing , or bending and standing from sitting position.

Clinical history and examination is necessary to make diagnosis, along with x rays and aspiration accompanied by microscopic examination of joint fluid.

Treatment is done by anti inflammatory drugs, steroids, physiotherapy and supportive measures like local massage and intrarticular steroid injections, researches conducted on effects of diet on different types of  arthritis has proven that intake of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids which are found in fish cod liver oil, nuts, beans, and corn and sunflower oil  is very effective in decreasing severity of arthritis, light exercises  like stretching of joints and jogging or running is very beneficial approach  and greatly improves the outcome, acupuncture and Reiki are other options for patients which can not  use allopathic drugs on long term basis.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Polyarticular syndrome and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polycythaemia:  
Polycythaemia: Polycythemia is increased number of red blood cells in body. It is diagnosed by increased hematocrit and ioncreased hemoglobin on laboratory tests. It is mainly of two types:

1. Primary Polycythemia
2. Secondary Polycythemia

Primary polycythemia is due to some intrinsic errors in production of red blood cells.like genetic and metabolic errors.

Secondary polycythemia is caused as aresult of certain environmental factors and internal diseases which increase red cell count, like renal and lung diseases.

Some heart diseases, people who smoke, who live on high altitudes and people who are exposed to high carbon dioxide levels for example those working in underground tunnels, people living in polluted large cities, or people working in factories with emission of carbon monoxide exhausts. Symptoms are fatigue, plethoric face, itching, bruising, headache, joint pain and symptoms of underlying disease. Phlebotomy alone is curable in majority of cases along with treatment of underlying cause. In this page, we are going to discuss about Polycythaemia and types of Polycythaemia, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polymorphic Photodermatoses:  
Polymorphic Photodermatoses: These are group of diseases, which are caused by or aggravated by sun exposure or ultra violet rays. For exposure of ultraviolet rays, sun exposure is not necessary; these rays are present even if weather is cloudy without intense sun heat.

These diseases include both genetic and acquired diseases, which predispose personís skin to develop light induced eruptions; these are acute and chronic actinic dermatitis, solar urticaria, rosacea, and polymorphous light eruption, cutaneous lupus, some types of porphyria and drug and plant induced photosensitivity.

Polymorphous light eruption is most common dermatosis. It is induced by sun exposure and due to autoimmune destruction of skin cells in reaction to ionizing ultraviolet rays and sunlight, it begins after hours or days of exposure and persists for days or weeks, patient develops red papules, plaques and blisters on skin with itching.

Urticaria type wheels can also appear. In chronic cases, patients can develop thickening of skin.

Diagnosis needs thorough history including history of sun exposure, history of outdoor occupation and pattern of onset, physical examination of skin shows characteristic pattern of lesions in exposed areas like hands face and neck. Skin biopsy is not routinely done; it is only needed in severe cases.

Preventive, measures are necessary for inhibiting flare-ups, like use of sun block even inside home or shelter, covering of body by protective clothing, hats, caps, gloves and stockings. Anti allergic drugs and topical steroids are helpful in relieving symptoms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Polymorphic Photodermatoses and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polymyalgia Rheumatic:  
Polymyalgia Rheumatic: Being an autoimmune disorder of unknown etiology, polymyalgia rheumatica is difficult to diagnose and treat; but fortunately most cases resolve spontaneously within a year or two. It affects group of muscles in different areas in body; most common are neck, shoulders, arms and hips.

Symptoms are malaise, weakness and pain in muscles especially on waking up in morning, decreased appetite and weight loss. One more association of this syndrome is with temporal arteritis which is inflammation of   temporal artery which runs through temples on face, presenting as headache, vision problems and pain in jaws.

Cause of polymyalgia rheumatica is unknown but bodyís own cells attack against muscle antigens, viral infections are usually act as stimuli for this attack. It affects old people and women are more commonly affected then men.

There is no specific test for diagnosis; some non specific tests can be done which can be helpful along with history and presentation of disease. These are elevated c reactive protein or CRP or erythrocyte sedimentation rate or ESR. Treatment is done by steroids for at least one year, light exercise and diet rich in multivitamins, proteins and calcium are beneficial to gain rapid recovery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about polymyalgia rheumatic and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polysystic Ovary Syndrome:  
Polysystic Ovary Syndrome: It is hormonal disorder which affects ovary, due to hormonal changes small fluid filled cavities or cysts are formed in ovary and there is absence of ovulation as a result women is unable to become pregnant and have irregular menstrual cycles, flow is either very light, or complete absence of menstruation also occurs and there is irregular timing between onset of cycle.

Exact cause is unknown but variety of genetic, environmental and hormonal changes can cause it like stress, sudden loss or gain of weight, increased insulin resistance and diabetes.

This syndrome is also associated with other findings like acne, male pattern of hair growth like hairs on chins, on back, or in arms, obesity or lean body, anxiety, loss of sex desire, cessation of menstruate  or irregular flow and infertility.

Polycystic ovarian syndrome is diagnosed by ultrasound and hormone analysis. Insulin levels and fasting blood sugar level are raised.  Latest method is laparoscopy or direct visualization of ovaries by instruments.

Treatment options are varied ranging from maintaining normal weight, reducing stress. Hormonal treatment is given along with drugs to lower blood sugar levels, and to induce ovulation; these measures are very effective and most of the patients respond to reduction of weight and regulating blood sugar levels. . Sometimes cystectomy is required to remove ovarian cysts.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Polysystic Ovary Syndrome and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Polyuria:  
Polyuria: Polyuria is a symptom not a disease itself, it is  defined a  secretion of excess quantity of urine frequently. polyuria can be alarming symptom of severe diseases like chronic renal failure or it may be just secondary to increased fluid intake and caffeine containing beverages like tea and coffee, broadly polyuria can be classified into physiological polyuria or pathological polyuria. physiological polyuria occurs in cold weather, at high altitudes, due to excess water intake, carbonated drinks,alcohol, tea and coffee, in pregnancy, this  type of polyuria is transient and subsides after cessation of stimuli or stopping  factors which cause it. pathological polyuria is due to diseases like diabetes,  renal failure, hyperthyroidism, psychosis, congestive heart failure, metabolic and electrolyte derangements, high doses of  vitamin C and B complex vitamins, urinary tract infection and stones, due to some tumors, liver failure  and lithium toxicity.

Polyuria is also secondary to use of some drugs like diuretics and steroids. Polyuria is a very discomforting symptom and usually associated with increased thirst due to fluid loss and dehydration.

Diagnosis of polyuria requires a lost of investigations beside good history and examination. first line diagnostic tests are fasting and random blood sugar levels, renal function tests, urinalysis, ultrasound of dine and pelvis. Pregnancy is major cause of polyuria , in women with  absence of menses pregnancy test should be done, polyuria is also major symptom in anxiety  disorders and various types of psychosis so psychological history  should be taken when other causes are excluded. Polyuria is treated by diet modifications like advice to avoid carbonated hyperosmolar drinks, alcohol, tea and coffee, regulating blood sugar levels in diabetics, fluid restriction in renal failure along with curing the underlying disease which requires follow up.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Polyuria and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Port Wine Stain:  
Port Wine Stain: These are types of birthmarks present on face, limbs or trunk. Histological these are types of arteriovenous malformation in which skin capillaries are dilated giving   pink, red or purplish hue to skin due to collection of blood within them.

These are given the name port wine because their color resembles the fresh wine. These are more common on face sometime they occur nears eyes or mouth resulting in complication.

Symptoms: these are present at birth, they tend to enlarge with age and may get thickened, lumpy or nodular causing disfigurement and immobility of parts, sometime they are often associated with brain hemangiomas, which are dilated vessels in brain, these can cause fits in adult life.

They can cause vision problems of present near skin of eyes. Port wine stains can lead to emotional and psychological impacts especially in women and young girls.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is totally based on history and physical appearance. Biopsy and brain x-ray, CT or   MRI scans are helpful in symptomatic stains.

Treatment: There is no cure for this condition, there are many methods used to diminish stains to some extent like radiation, surgery and lasers. Application of lasers is modern technique to treat these satins and deepen them to large extent. Cosmetics can be use to hide the stain if patients are so concern about their appearance.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Port Wine Stain and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pre Eclampsia And Eclampsia:  
Pre Eclampsia And Eclampsia: Syndrome of high blood pressure, swelling or edema and appearance of proteins in urine in pregnant women is called preeclampsia, preclampsia if untreated or not properly managed can progress to more severe syndrome called eclamspia, eclampsia is elevated blood pressure, edema and onset of neurological symptoms like seizures or fits, altered state of mind, unconsciousness, coma and can lead to death of both mother and baby.

Risk factors for development of both conditions are obesity, history of high blood pressure before pregnancy, history of diabetes, history of same disorder in previous pregnancy and family. Symptoms are headache, irritability, increased blood pressure, swelling of legs and face, drowsiness and episodes of fits.

Eclampsia is an obstetrical emergency and should be diagnosed and treated promptly, diagnosis is done by history, examinations, blood tests, continuous blood pressure readings, urinalysis and ultrasound to see the baby condition. Treatment involves sedation and isolation of patient.

Use of drugs to control fits and blood pressure should be liberal. Rest, intravenous fluid therapy and oxygen save both mother and baby. If symptoms are not controlled then emergency cesarean section is arranged to save both mother and child.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pre Eclampsia And Eclampsia and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Premature Ejaculation:  
Premature Ejaculation: It is a condition in  which male emits seminal fluid before erection or within few minutes of it, as a result sperms can not sufficiently be deposited in vagina and both partners remain unsatisfied and full sex desire is not fulfilled due to rapid  completion of sexual act.

It creates anxiety and depression. Ejaculation is process of secretion and expulsion of seminal fluid from penis with force, semen fluid contains semen which fertilizes eggs in female genital tract, this disorder can also lead to infertility. Premature ejaculation is not very dangerous condition but can lead to dissatisfaction and separation.

Diagnosis of premature ejaculation is based on thorough history and physical analysis of semen, treatment involves counseling, psychotherapy and various techniques which can prevent premature ejaculation. some topical creams are available which reduces stimulation and cause prolong arousal time, homeopathic medicines are well known for this disorder and should be prescribed by qualified homeopathic doctor.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Premature Ejaculation  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Premature Labor:  
Premature Labor: Regular uterine contractions for at least two times within 10 minutes and lasting for 30 seconds before 37 weeks of gestation or pregnancy is called preterm labor.

Preterm labor results in premature delivery of child and decreased survival of baby due to low birth weight and decreased lung maturity. risk factors for premature labor are poor nutritional status of mother, low height and weight of mother, maternal infections like rubella, syphilis, bacterial vaginosis, chorioamnionitis, dehydration, injury or trauma to abdomen, anxiety and stress, premature rupture of membranes, hyper emesis gravid arum or excessive vomiting, over distension of uterus by fluid or twin or triplet babies, cervical incompetence and premature opening of uterine opening and some autoimmune disorders.

Symptoms of preterm labor are backache progressing to regular contractions, vaginal discharge or bleeding, or leaking, pressure on pelvis, rapid heart rate and pulse. Preterm labor is diagnosed by clinical assessment. Cervical length and incompetence can be detected on ultrasound; antibodies can be detected by blood tests.

Vaginal discharge vulture can detect the causative organism.  Treatment of preterm labor is done by adequate rest and proper diet, prior vaccination for infections band antibiotics if infection already occurs, suturing of mouth of cervix and drugs to stop uterine contractions. Baby is secured by giving drugs which expand lung before delivery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about premature labor and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Premenstrual Syndrome:  
Premenstrual Syndrome: It is a group of symptoms which some women experience before onset of menstrual cycle, shortly known as PMS. Symptoms start few days before and condition recovers spontaneously just before the start or some days after menstruation.

There are many causative factors for its development like genetics, hormonal imbalance, history of PMS or any psychological illness in family member, different theories are postulated about its occurrence, mostly accepted theory is that some neurotransmitters are released from brain in response to womenís monthly cyclical changes which cause emotional and physical symptoms, symptoms are anxiety depression, unstable mood, breast tenderness, diarrhea or constipation, decreased appetite.

Premenstrual syndromeĎs diagnosis is totally on clinical grounds; there is no test to diagnose the condition. Counseling, psychological therapy, and vitamin supplements play a role, vitamin E and B complex supplementation plays a significant reduction in symptoms, evening primrose oil is highly effective in PMS, according to latest researches. Evening primrose oil contains omega 6 fatty acids which not only relieve PMS symptoms but also improve overall health of women.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Premenstrual Syndrome and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Prickly Heat:  
Prickly Heat: Prickly heat is rash, which appears on body in extremely hot humid climate. It is more common in children but can occur at any age; these are very discomforting lesions with skin irritation.

Causes: These occur due to clogging of skin pores due to blockage of sweaty secretion; as a result, sweat accumulates in sweat glands and cause inflammation.

Symptoms: There is diffuse rash on whole body especially present on face, chest, hands, under the skin folds like armpits, under breast, and in groins, these cause irritation and pricking feeling, sometimes they cause itching. Often they may appear a blisters, they can develop superimposed infection with resulting yellow colored pus.

Diagnosis: History of exposure to intense heat and physical findings are suggestive of diagnosis.

Treatment: Most of the time prickly heat rash resolves by their own within weak or so, but lesions staying for longer periods and with infection have to be treated with soothing lotion-containing menthol.

They give cooling effect to skin, patients are advised to avoid intense heat, live in properly ventilated rooms with air conditioners, frequent baths with cold water also aids in this condition as well as wearing of loose clothing made up of light fabric like cotton. Patients are also asked to avoid strenuous exercises, which cause excessive sweating. In case of infection antibiotics are advised in topical forms.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Prickly Heat  and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Prolapsing Mitral Valve:  
Prolapsing Mitral Valve: In this page, we are going to discuss about Prolapsing Mitral Valve and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Prolapsus Ani:  
Prolapsus Ani: It is a condition in which inner anal canal and rectum comes out through the anal opening with its mucosa. It usually occurs in old age and cause much discomfort and very irritating to patient.

Causes: The most common cause is constipation, straining  to pass hard stools is a  major contributing factor, other causes which increase intra abdominal pressure result in its  occurrence like heavy strenuous exercise and chronic coughing are major causes. Previous surgeries on anal and vaginal area also result in weakening of muscles and ligaments and result in prolapsed. Some neuromuscular disorders like stroke also cause it.

Symptoms: Patient feels something coming put from anus with pain and discomfort and bleeding. There is also itching if stool leaks from the protruded part and continuous moisture results in itching. If it becomes infected then fever and chills are also present.

Diagnosis: it is done by rectal examination; patient is put on squatting position. Complete prolapsed is obvious, incomplete prolapsed is seen by asking the patient to cough, on coughing intra abdominal pressure is increased and prolapsed part becomes more pronounced.

Treatment: Minor prolapsed respond to conservative treatment. Painkillers and antibiotics are given to prevent pain and infection. Patients are advised to avoid constipation by taking lots of fluids and high fiber diet. Pelvic exercises are very useful for strength and tone of pelvic muscles.  Major prolapsed requires surgery.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Prolapsus Ani and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Prolapsus Uteri:  
Prolapsus Uteri: In this page, we are going to discuss about Prolapsus Uteri and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Proteins:  
Proteins: Proteins are macronutrients present in food. They are required on regular basis in our diet to maintain normal health and function of body. protein is an essential component of cells, they are used in our body  for growth and development of  muscles, they are used to make antibodies, carrier and transport proteins, maintain pressure of blood , prevents edema, and cause repair and renewal of body cells.

Proteins are of two basic types, animal proteins and plant proteins. Sources of animal proteins are meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products, plant proteins are found in pulses, nuts, legumes and beans. proteins are made up of chain of molecules called amino acids, amino acids are important for  making enzymes , co enzymes  or biological catalysts which assist many metabolic function in body like growth and energy, metabolism along with vitamins and other food components. Protein deficiency results in poor growth, swelling of body, dry skin, flaky weak hairs and increased rate of infection in children.

In adults symptoms of protein deficiency are edema or swelling, weak hairs and dull skin, repeated infections, decreased muscle power and lean body with decreased muscle mass. Proteins of animal quality can be obtained by taking mixed pulses and beans in diet, which fulfills the daily requirement without elevating cholesterol levels which could occur in case of taking meat and dairy products as a source of protein because these foods contain fats along with proteins.

Usually fish is the best source of good quality animal protein and also contain omega 3 and 6 fatty acids for brain and cardiac health.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Proteins  and its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pruritis:  
Pityriasis: Pruritis or itching is very discomforting condition or disease in which there is strong desire to scratch the skin. Pruritis can occur in repose to various chemical, physical, neuronal and even psychological stimuli. In response to various iritative stimuli a chemical substances is released in skin cells called histamine, which mediates this sensation.

Puritis is relieved temporarily by scratching but if it is excessive, it can cause lacerations and abrasions on skin and superimposed infections.

Causes: Allergic reactions are most common cause of pruritis; some people are allergic or sensitive to environmental antigens and foods, which can cause pruruits like urticaria, food allergies, and carpet or dust allergy.

Second most common cause is infection and worm infestation like body and hair lice, chicken pox, measles, scabies, larval infestation, insect bite like mosquito and bugs. Various physical factors can also cause itch by irritation of skin like shaving, skin disease are also major cause of pruritis like eczema, dandruff and  psoriasis, dry skin is  one of the  most common causes of pruritis. Among systemic disorders, liver disease can often cause pruritis, kidney disease and diabetes can also cause pruritis, and pregnancy is a major factor to produce this condition.

Diagnosis: Diagnosis is obvious from history and physical signs like redness, scratch marks and scaling on skin; history of allergies is very important in making diagnosis. Presence of associated signs is also present like presence of jaundice in liver disease.

Treatment: Treatment of itching can be done by anti allergic drugs and local ointments and creams, steroids are used in severe cases. Treatment of underlying disease is necessary like liver disease. Skin should be moisturized regularly because dryness can aggravate the condition. Patients should live in cool environment, wear soft and loose clothing, personal hygiene should be maintained properly to prevent this condition.

Environment should be cleaned without dust and other known allergens as some people start itching when thy use carpets and are allergic to fiber. Especially those who have sensitive skin should use insect repellents to prevent insect bite.

In this page, we are going to discuss about Pruitis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Prutitus:  
Prutitus: In this page, we are going to discuss about Prutitus a and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Pseudogout:  
Pseudogout: It is also called false gout. It is a kind of arthritis in which joint cartilage is destroyed by accumulation of calcium pyrophosphate crystals. It results in inflammation, which causes pain, stiffness, and swelling of joint. Knee, ankle, wrist, and shoulder joints are affected, there is only one or few joints affected there are attacks of inflammation and then it resolves spontaneously and recurs usually in moist weather. Treatment is medication for pain relief and for swelling rest and hot fomentation may be beneficial. Diets containing increased calcium content should not be taken and calcium supplements are contraindicated. In this page, we are going to discuss about Pseudogout and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Psoriasis:  
Psoriasis: In this page, we are going to discuss about Psoriasis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Psoriatic Arthritis:  
Psoriatic Arthritis: Inflammatory arthritis occurring in psoriasis patients is psoriasis arthritis. It occurs in 10% patients of psoriasis. Psoriasis is a skin diseases comprising of red scaly patches on skin. Patients usually have history of   psoriasis of months and years before developing arthritis. Joints are painful tender and red, stiffness is common, more pronounced in morning. Patients have general symptoms also, like malaise. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and history. Treatment is anti inflammatory drugs and joint exercises to avoid disability. Application of warmth is also useful to involved joints. In this page, we are going to discuss about Psoriatic Arthritis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.
Puerperal Fever:  
Puerperal Fever: Fever of  100įF or more then 100įF over 24 hours, or recurring within first ten days of delivery or  abortion is called puerperal fever. Puerperum is 6 months period after child birth. Causes are criminal abortion, emergency cesarean sections, repeated vaginal examinations during delivery with unsterilized hands, internal diseases of women like UTIs, cigarette smoking, prolong rupture of membranes, prolonged labor, and cracked nipples. Management involves keeping temperature record, control of  fever,  antibiotics, bed rest, good diet and treatment of any wound infection (like cesarean section wound, or infected episiotomy or tear) by antiseptic dressings. Consult doctor immediately if signs of septic shock appear , or fever remains high after all measures. In this page, we are going to discuss about Puerperal Fever and symptoms of Puerperal Fever, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India