Menopause: It is the cessation of ovarian function with failure to produce ova and stoppage of menstrual cycle or flow at specific age. Age at which menopause appear vary from women to women but average age of menopause is 45 to 55 years.
It can occur early or late depending on various factors, like racial and ethnic group, presence of any disease and genetics. Diseases like polycystic ovarian syndrome or endometriosis can cause early menopause, surgical removal of ovaries can also cause early menopause.
Asian women develop menopause at earlier age then European women. Family history of menopause counts a lot, if woman develops menopause late then more likely her daughter will also develop it at late age.
When ovaries stop functioning, they stop to secrete hormone called estrogen, estrogen is the main hormone, which is responsible for uterine stimulation and cause release of some hormones from brain, which are responsible for normal menstrual cycle and cause menstrual flow.
Most of women donot directly go to cessation of menstruation but before that, there is period of scant or very little menstrual flow, within couple of years this flow gradually disappeared.
There are other symptoms of menopause also like hot flushes, anxiety and depression, vaginal dryness, breast tenderness, night sweats. Not all women experience these symptoms; most of the women have no symptoms except absence of menstruation.
Women after menopause cannot conceive and become infertile. Lack of estrogen also makes bones prone to degeneration and chances of osteoporosis are increased due to decreased calcium absorption and deposition in bones. Menopause is natural physiological change in women’s lives and it needs to be accepted with open mind. With improved diet and regular exercise, symptoms of menopause can be reduced to varying extent.
Women should take increased calcium and more proteins in their diet. Yoga and meditation are also used to delay the process and give strength to mind and relieve anxiety and depression which most women experience around menopausal years.
In this page, we are going to discuss about Menopause and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.