Laryngeal Paralysis: Larynx is a box like structure, which provides passage between the throat and the respiratory passages. Its function is to produce voice. Two muscular bands in front of larynx called vocal cords or vocal folds they vibrate during passage of air and produce sound do voice production.
Another function of larynx is to prevent food entry into respiratory passages by closing it with its upper flap like structure called epiglottis. larynx is innervated by a of cranial nerve called vague nerve and various other nerves which comes from brain stem and which control its function and innervate vocal cords.
Laryngeal paralysis is a condition in which vocal cords and other muscles of larynx are unable to move or vibrate or cannot do normal function due to interrupted nerve supply. It is common in children might be because of birth trauma, various birth defects and neuromuscular disorders. Causes in adults are postoperative complications of surgeries like thyroidectomy, various tumors of neck, thyroid and larynx, which compress the nerve supply of larynx, and autoimmune neuromuscular disorders.
Symptoms: Laryngeal paralysis may be unilateral or bilateral. In unilateral case, nerve supply of only one side of larynx is interrupted. Resulting in hoarseness of voice or change in voice quality. In bilateral paralysis all nerve innervations to larynx is discontinued resulting in respiratory difficulty and complete cessation of voice production and aspiration of food particles in respiratory passages Aspiration cause severe complications causing lung edema and infection and even choking and sudden death depending upon type and quantity of food particle which has been aspirated.
Diagnosis: Diagnosis is made by laryngoscopy and cranial nerve tests and other neurological examination. Electromyography, which is wavy graph of electrical stimulation of muscles and detects muscle paralysis, is also very help full, symptoms of underlying causes are also present. X-ray neck, chest, and CT and MRI scans are also very helpful.
Treatment: Treatment varies according to cause. Most likely surgery is recommended to relieve pressure on nerves like removal of tumors, immunosuppressive drugs treat autoimmune disorders. Thyroid surgery and other head and neck surgeries should be performed with expert hands to avoid complications.
In this page, we are going to discuss about Laryngeal Paralysis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.