Gall Stones: Stones in gall bladder are of two basic types; Pigment stones and cholesterol stones. Gall bladder is an organ, which stores bile salts and concentrates it with bile salts and bile acids before its release in duodenum.
Pigment stones usually develop due to obstruction of bile flow from gallbladder, or excessive production pf billirubin in hemolytic conditions.
Exact etiology of cholesterol stones is not known, but they may be associated with high fat diet, obesity and usually common in women. Gallstones lead to acute and chronic inflammation of gall bladder.
Symptoms: Patient has episodic crampy pain in right upper quadrant of abdomen or constant dull pain in epigastrium , nausea and vomiting, indigestion, fever , general malaise , fatigue , and loss of appetite is also present , sometimes jaundice is also present
Diagnosis: Gall stones appear on abdominal ultrasound or CT or MRI scan. Billirubin levels will be elevated on liver function tests.
Treatment: Gall stones are indication of surgical removal of gall bladder. Patients are kept on antibiotics before and after surgery and advised to take low fat diet.
In this page, we are going to discuss about gall stones and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.