Arthritis: Arthritis is inflammation of joints. Arthritis is common problem and cause of discomfort and disability, joints can be damaged by many factors like trauma or injury, age, lack of exercise or physical activity, infection, spread of disease from bones, autoimmune disorders and continues wear and tear or friction.
Arthritis usually develops in old age but can also occur in children and young adults in case of autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases are those in which body develops antibodies against its own tissues and destroys them.
Types of arthritis
There are many types of arthritis; most common and prevalent forms are given below.
This type of arthritis is common in old age and more common in females, in obese people and people who have lack of physical activity. Osteoarthritis affects weight-bearing joints of body like knee, hip, and hands. Weight or injury can result in destruction of joints and inflammation. Symptoms are pain, stiffness of joints, swelling and immobility. Pain gets worse after physical activity or exercise. X rays showing destruction of joint can make diagnosis. Pain gets worse in morning. Anti-inflammatory drugs, moderate physical exercises and weight loss treat osteoarthritis. In extreme cases joint replacement surgery is done. Physiotherapy plays an important role in treating arthritis.
Antibodies are formed against joint tissue resulting in its destruction in an autoimmune disease. It affects small joints of hands, fingers, elbow and knees; there is pain, stiffness, swelling and deformity of joints. Pain gets worse in morning, in most people an antibody is detected on blood test called RA factor, which is diagnostic, steroids, physiotherapy, treat it and like osteoarthritis, surgery is required in marked deformity and inability to move the joint.
It is a type of arthritis which results from deposition of uric acid crystals within joint space, these crystals cause inflammation and deformity of joints, sometimes calcium pyrophosphate crystals are deposited; this condition is called pseudogout.
This type of arthritis affects single joint initially but later involve multiple joints, diagnoses are made by blood tests, which reveal increased uric acid level and x rays of affected joints. Gout responds to anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs, which lower uric acid levels. Patients are advised to avoid red meat, spinach and tomatoes because these diets contain uric acid and calcium. Physiotherapy greatly helps in improving mobility and flexibility of joints.
As its name implies this type of arthritis results from bacterial invasion of joints. This is most dangerous type because if not treated infection rapidly destroys the joints and its surrounding structures. Septic or infectious arthritis results from injury to bone or joints in case of road traffic accidents or it spreads to joint from some other body part like bone or skin fistula, it can occur in association with sepsis, or untreated complicated fractures can also lead to this type of arthritis. Symptoms are severe pain, fever, chills, swelling and hot tender joints.
X rays and culture of synovial fluid make diagnosis, (synovial fluid is present in space between the joints and provides lubrication to joint surfaces).
Oral or intravenous antibiotics along with drainage of infected synovial fluid do treatment.
In this page, we are going to discuss about Arthritis and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment in Urdu and Roman Hindi for the people of Pakistan and India.